Assumed  it  is  correct  that  already  in 4th  millennium BC. small groups of Northerners left northern Europe by boat down the rivers - at least down  the
Danube- and  reached
  the  Mediterranean. If so then  boots  were  needed.
The poblem :

   The origin of Neolithic seagoing clinker boats

             Egypt  Cheops 2400 b.                                                 Oseberg  Norway 800

Two ships with about  three thousand  years beween,  both with disproportio-
natey high stems. If no practical reasons then a more mythical background ?

In the crown of Cheops and at the stem of Oseberg a spiral.

 The belief in North and South:  A deceased  needs  a boat to cross the
deadly  water,>  the deadly  winding  waterway in Pyramidtext < to  meet  the sun-
god at the horizont,  where gods were born.


Problem: Besides a common belief  biology  supports  the view  the appear-
ance of blond people
If already in the 4th millennium BC Post - Magdalénian (Tamahu?
the Mediterranian down the rivers by ship, then
there must have been appro-
priate boats in the Neolithic North.


 Back to the ´facts´ At the end of the 4th millennium BC double-ended clinker
                  built (?)
   " long ships"  become provable in Acient Egypt.


Egypt.   Painted  linen  cloth   from   a grave  on  Gebelen .Negade II  Culture,
around 3000
.B.C.( Museo Egizio, Turin)  Well-being  the  oldest  illustration of a 
rudder crew.

Could be a doubleended  plank boat  with typical  steersman at the stern. All
of the
crew wear a beard (?)

It might be argued that  the  above ´Egyptean long boat´ did  not  originate in
the North because in the North Viking boats (compareable in form!) became 
provable about  4000 years later.

If  so than  the North took  over the  special    technology  of plank  boats  in a
process of a cultural ´diffusion; comparable to a supposed  transfee of agri-
culture, i.e *ex oriente lux*.   May be, but a technical objection

      The technical ´standard´ proveable in Ancient Egypt
and Near East                                                     is far from building such long ships.

1.) Egypt is not a  timber-land !  (tamarisk and acacia can´t be split into long
planks,  sycamore,  fast  growing,  too weak,  notable for its  use  by ancient
 Egyptians to make  mummy cases)

2.) The tools for splitting long trees to get long planks are not  found in Egypt
 within the  4th millennium BC.
(Lucas,A. and Harris,J.R. Ancient Egyptian Materials
 and Industry, 1962)

Worthwhile to note the famous Cedars in the neighbouring Libanon. In the Ghassulien ´Flint  Industry '  a  specialization  for  wood  working  took place
In  Byblos  and Ghassul an increasing number of axe, chisel and drill are
Noteworthy:  It´s the area of  the  Palestine Dolmensin number
about c. 20000.

(Elliot, C The Ghassulian Culture in Palestine: Origins, Influences and Abandonment, in
Levant X 1978))


Problem I

Who built the wooden ´Egyptian´ long-boats and in Palestine  the numerous

In North Africa, in Palestine and along the coast of the Black Sea the Mega-

lithic monuments were built in the 3th millennium BC.They are compareable

in size  and  construction   with  corresponding  Megalithic tombs  along  the

coasts  of  NW-Europe built in the  5th to 4th millennium BC.

                A gap of about 1000 years still  has to be explained.

Hypothesis: .The  unknown  myth  behind  the Megalithic tombs in  Palestine
originated in the North.
If so  then  likely  to suppose  that the  early  wooden ´
Egyptian´ ships were built in Palestine by ´immigrating´ Northerners, coming
down the rivers, at least down  the Danube. The  given  technical standard in
the neolithic North may support this view.

           Technical ship-building standards  in the Stone Age.

In Egypt and at the Euphrates  the  necessity to  build river  boats is  obvious
The hunt fishing and  the trade need  river  boats. In Mesopotamia  there  are

at times of Herodot (400 BC) the skin-covered  round  boats, on  the Nile the

papyrus boats.

The boats are cheap  and  technically simple. The technical challenge  to the

boat  builder was the leisurely flowing  Nile.
The necessity to build  sea-worthy

boats is  missing  along  the Nile. The more  dangerous  open sea  was  not

the  natural habitat of the native inhabitants.

In the North another situation. The Post-Magdalénian found  in  the  North an unhabitual, dangerous hunting ground;  the Danish  islands  with  its  surroun-
coasts abounding in fish. The neolithic hunt for cod  fish,  haddock  and
seal  is proven
. All in all

In the North a necessity was given to develop
               sea-worthy coastal ships

So far sea-worthy neolithic ships have  not been  found, but  the  tools of that
time are known. This allows to look for an indirect technical ´proof.
                                             The question:

  Could one have built wooden /plank ships with neolithic tools?
        a b

                             Disk wheels, 3th millennium BC

a):3th millennium BC. Overijssel in Holland. Diameter 92 cm. The  socket is
24 cm long  outstanding  to  both  sides.  I.e. the  plan k was  broad  at  least
24 cm.
For the preparation a  straight-grown oak trunk of at  least 135 cm  diameter
was needed. With  axe,adze and  chisel  the raw  form out of  the plank was
made. Such wheels were found several times
(van de Waals, Prehistoric disk Wheels into the Netherlands, 1964)
b): A  repaired broken disk wheel with a dovetailing.

      Making long planks had been technical standard in the neolithic North
       (In the 6th millennium BC planks were used for construction of houses (Rössner)


            Sewed plank, Sweden (  http:// planks.htm)


         For sewing planks holes must be set into I.e. drills are needed


                                       Flint-drills. Actual size

In Denmark flint-drills were found in remarkable number. Up to 10-40 % of
                the total
flint-inventar. (Nielsen) Remarkable the number.
                                   (What were the drills needed for?)

                                 drills              all          
 Siderstedt                    24              100

 Vaerby                          37              337

Stengade II                    26              658
 Harvnelev                    118             293

           Part of the sunboat of the Nebra- sky disk (1600 BC) Three planks overlap

There is technically a straight line from sewn skin boats of
 the reindeer hunter to the sewn plank boats of the Viking.

In  the North  reindeers on  the  move  while swimming across the rivers had
been an
easy  booty  for Magdalénian  hunters following  the reindeers  with
sewn  skin boats.

To day  still a  hunting method used in Siberia (TV)   Conceivable that in the
development on  the coasts the  skins  were  replaced  gradually  by planks.Thereby open  waters could become a new hunting ground.

Not later than the 4th millennium
BC the technical prerequisits for building
long plank boats were given in the North.

The northern Post-Magdalénean- were qualified
                   1) to fell strong trees 
                   2) to split long trees into planks
                   3) to join planks by sewing.

 Nielsen, P.O. 1985  Prozentualer Anteil der Flintgeraetetypen  im  Material
 fruehneolithischer   Fundplaetze   Daenemarks  und  Schonens  (Sigersted
In >Beitraege zur fruehneolithischen TBK im westlichen Ostseegebiet
internationales TBK Symposium in Schleswig 1989<)

Wechler, K.P. 1993  Mesolithikum - Bandkeramik- Trichterbecherkultur.
Zur Neolithisierung Mittel - und Ostdeutschlands  auf  grund  vergleichender
Untersuchungen zum Silexinventar

                          1-1-ancient ship

Next    Ancient shipbuilding II. Problems to built saegoing ships in Egypt.
No long cedar timber.