and northern Europe

                          Georgien.  Treasures from the country of the Golden Fleece

                         ( Catalog: German mining industry museum, Bochum 2001)
                                                  "--" Text Catalog. My translation

                                            The ´holy´ Ring
        a b c d
 a) Old Bronze-Age, a more womanlike ' decoration ' after grave finds.
Neck-, arm and leg rings. Frequent  findings in  Mid-Germany  and  Northern Europe
(Details, germ.http)
b) Georgia. Woman  statuette, 3th  century BC.17,1 cm. Bronze. It wears golden
ear-,neck-and arm rings
c) Georgia Figurine, 25 cm, Bronze, 3th century BC. Wearing golden neck-,ear
and  armrings. The gold decoration was made of  thin wire. On  the  head four round
disks formed from thin sheet of gold
d) Geneva lake, Villeneuve. A wooden figurine with a neckring, which  kept  three
celtic coins in a fissure in the arm area.( A descriptive example of a cash donation
 for the ferryman? A ferryman myth  surviving´in Europe and Near-East (Dannheimer)

                      a   c
) Georgia, bracelet,  bronze poured,  dm 6.5-7cm, 1220 gr.The solid  ringoval cross sections and  spreading ends. On  the  inside  of some  rings  skin  remainders  were found. Foot rings were wide spread  since the end  of the 2th  millennium BC  everywhere in  Caucasus (and in Central Europe)
, copper, 3th millenium BC, dm1.4 cm, 3gr. (Fingerring?)

c) Mid Germany, double spirals

                               a b
.                                              a) Georgia.So called "spectacles", bronze casted, afterwards  forged spiral 4,0 cm
                                               Prototypes of these ´glasses spirals´ are proven in the  Kura Araxes culture. End of
                                               4th mill.BC). Its form appeares in the Koban culture and is common in Georgia and
                                               in  the North Caucasus.(1400 -550 BC)
                                               b) Mid-Germany.  Double spiral. Hessen , Tumulus, Bronze Age (2th mill.BC)

  a b  c
a.) Georgia (1100-900 BC) bronze.L:6.5cm,Gw.44.9 gr, trewing find. No date.
(as ' Tri-volute ' also in Newgrange. Sahara )
b.) Crete(1100-900 BC, Urnfield-time) "The finds from tombs of the period include
 not only weapons and bronze tools but a large number of and variety of brooches
 which were  used to  secure and  adorn the  heavy  woolen Dorian  peplos. Most
 are simple bow shapes,but one is decorated with four spirals"
(Herakleion Museum)
c.) Naxos (Athen), a flat bowl with broken handle, 3.mill..BC
d.) Sweden, Gotland, isle in the Baltic Sea. Picture Stone, 5th c.AD

 Georgia, dagger, iron with bronze hilt. 8th-7th c.BC (l:16 cm b 3.8 cm).The hilt
 is decorated with sequential spirals, separated by paint fillt volumes.

a b
a)  Nordic full  hilt  swords  (Vollgriffschwerter  (n=552 !) of  the  older and middle
Bronze Age of  the western area of  the Baltic Sea, almost completedly `decorated
in the hilts with comparable sun symbols (spirals, circles) (Ottenjann)
b) Bronce sword (Reconstruction),  Isle of Sylt, North Germany
                                  Sun disk
                                                      a b c
                     a) Georgia, sun disk, 15th century BC. Spirals in rectangular-meander  form.
                     b) Enlargement of 0179.Double spirals along the edge
  Sun disk from a grave of a woman 15th century BC.These sun disks are
only in woman graves
                               Generall  problem: The meaning of a  Meander 

                  a                                                                    c

a-b) Greece. Doric-Geometrical time (900-700 BC) Sequential spirals
represented in rectangle construction. Meander. The triangle with stages may
correspond to the Egyptian hieroglyphic Pimeval Hill . Concentric circles old
égyptian´symbol of the sun.
c)  Part of a tray (440 BC) The oracle priestess of Delphy sitting on a Tripod
surrounded by a circle of  ´running spirals´.A circle supported by a column.

Problem: From common prevailing art-historical view meander are insignificant
The meander, swastika, and ´battlement  patterns were prominent´and, together with the older concentric circles, were used by the painters to push back the large  areas of solid  black characteristic of  Protogeometric  vases and
to create a pleasing halftone decorative effect".(Encylopedia Brittannica)

                  Where did the * Georgians* come from ?                                                     "original text" catalog, my translation
" There are different views about the beginning of the central Bronze Age in Georgia
It is put into the second half of the  3th millennium BC and divided into the culture
of  the early Kurgan and  the Trialeti culture. First covers the entire second half of
the 3th millennium and is characterized by a remarkable change of the way of life
Humans left at that time  for unknown reasons their habited vallies and lowlands."

Dolmen in Caucasus.(klick) Remarkable frequent ´port holes´ Bronce Age.(2500-2000 BC)
Right:  Züschen, Midgermany, stone cist burial 2000 BC."
"From this epoch no settlements  are  known, it is provable  only by grave finds
The funeral customs changed and it developed up to then uncommon barrows ("Kurgan")
The  Kurgan  became  the  typical  graves of  the  moving Nomades in the northern
Caucasus With its  immigration  the culture and  way of life in the area of the todayGeorgia changed  

Problem. "Who  wer e however these cattle breeders and nomads, who were burried in the Kurgan? This  question is so far not clearly to  be  answered,  but is connected  generally  with  the Indoeuropean  and is interpreted with appropriate  elements in the kartwelic languages, being an inheritence of these northern immigrants."(Text Katalog)

Kurgan Culture:    Seminomadic   pastoralist  culture  that  spread   from  the  Russian stepps  to  Danubian  Europe  about 3500 BC. By  about  2300  BC the Kurgans arrived  in  the  Aegean  and  Adriatic regions. The Kurgans buried their dead  ineep  shafts  within artificial burial  mounds or  arrows. The word kurgan
means  "
barrow," or "artificial mound"in Turkic and Russian
(Encyclopaedia. Britannica)

: How to incorporate the numerous mounds in North-West Europe ? A cultural takeover from Kurgan people ?
                  .deng dengl   pepi
tumulus  *Deng Hoog* on  the  isle  of Sylt, North  Germany.
 2600-2200  BC

contemporary with  Egyptian mastaba and  pyramids. Symbol of  the primeval hill ?
small stone relief in the tomb of Pepi II ( http://www.marsearthconnection.com/madler.html )
                   Meaning ? Could be a ground plan, referring to predynastic burial rites


Boats at the Capsian  Sea, Gobustan 1400-800 BC. Heyerdahl refers to compareablerock pidture in Scandinavia. (Googl Gobustan, picture)

         In the North, South and South-East related people with
              neck-, foot- armrings, spirals and tumulus burial  
                Symbols of a  North-West European ´megalithic´ natural religion ?
 Dannheimer, H. Gebhard,R.1993)   Das keltisiche Jahrtausend,
Ottenjann,H. Die nordischen Vollgriffschwerter der aelteren und mittleren Bronzezeit.
                   Roem. German. Komission Bd.30,1969)
1-Georgien 015.09.04 up


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