The  North to South downward gradient in the use of milk    

            A genetic problem with probably prehistoric consequences

                           There are three points taken as scientifically "proven"

                            1) No adult mammal can digest milk (lactose)
                            2) With one exception: Nomads could stomach milk

       Problem:  The population in the territory of the western Baltic can digest milk

As a rule:  All  mammals receive  mother's  milk  as ' starting food ', but
after  nursing   time  all  mammals  lose  the  ability  to  digest  full  milk
                           and the  young denied mothers breast.
                           ( It is  Darwin and  an enzym LACTASE behind)

            First osmotic problems with mother´s milk. (LACTOSE)

    g /%                   human      cow        goat      sheep      horse     reindeer
Water                      87.2        87.5        82.7        86.6       90.1         82.8
Carbohydrates        7.0           4.8          6.3           3.9         5.9            5.5
Lipids                       4.0           3.7          5.3           3.7         1.5            7.4
Protein                     1.5           3.5          4.6           4.2         2.1            3.6

kcal/100 ml              70             66          86            65          43
kJ/100 ml               294           278        361         273        180

-------------------------------------------------- -------------------------------------
Problem: The  data  for water  and  carbohydrates in milk are biological
constants. After Darwin genetically set optimal by mutation and
along millennia of evolution.

The aim   870 ml of water and 70 g carbohydrates in one liter of lactose
                                           No more and no less.



    Water in biological structures - in or around cell - can flow along  an
                                        osmotic gradient only

                          hohe Konzentration           high  
                          mittlere      "                        middle  
                         Losungsmittel                    solvent (water)
  For   further  understanding of the  given  hypothesis the  physical  back-
  ground  of osmosis is in detail not necessary (I hope so :-)  if, then please
   Finally the  crucial point  to follow the biological problems
  Water flows in a body always passively from areas of low  osmolarity
  areas of high  osmolarity
                       (e.g.from  of 100 mosmol ´uphill´into an area of  600 mosmol )
------------------------------------------------ ---------------------------------------------------

Problem I: Sugar (carbohydrates)  in milk  of mammals  is  not a  normal
 sugar,   no  normal  glucose.   Milksugar  consists  of a double molecule.

                   One glucose becomes connected with one galactose.
                       One key for understanding evolution of mammals


 Problem II   Evolution  of mammals has to face difficulties in construction.    
      The relatively high  osmotic  pressure of 70gr carbohydrates  in milk
In  blood plasma        ~ 1 g glucose / L.
                             in  milk                       70 g         "


Hypothesis: The osmotic pressure of milk sugar is  -after  Darwin - optimal,
 if  870 ml  water flows  within a certain time (x-minutes) from plasma water
 into  the mammary gland,.
no more, no less despite of 70 g carbohydrate in 870 ml water
870 ml water a constant
The crucial point: The  osmotic pressure and thus the "water -drawing force"                                                depends on the number  of molecules
                                  dissolved in a liquid , not on the size of
                                                    the molecules
Problem I:  If carbohydrates  in  milk would not be a double-molecular  lactose
but   single glucose and galactose molecules, then the corresponding osmotic pressure would be ~ 450 mosmol.
Could  be  that  such a " high" pressure  would   draw  much
more than 870 ml
water into the milk.

Hypothesis:   By combining  two  molecules  to  one  molecule  the number of
 osmotic effectiv molecules  becomes  halved  and  thereby the  osmotic pres-
sure of carbohydrates drop  by half, allowing  to  store 70g  lactose in  870 ml
water with an osmolarity  of 450 : 2 =225  mosmol, supposed to be an optimal
 biological value developed  by  mutation  along  millennia of  evolution  accor-
ding to Darwin´

      The double-molecul latose is needed to keep an optimal  water volume
                                                    in milk constant.



                    The double molecule lactose is for mammals ungestable.
                            To digest milk a spezial  baby enzyme is needed

he   molecules   pass undigested  baby´s  stomache  and  enter  the small
 intestine. Here a special baby-enzyme   Lactase split  the double-molecule
Being  splitted  to  glucose  and  galactose  the  lactose  becomes digestable.
                                (  Thus  without lactase no mammals


 So far no biochemistry problems, but
In human18 month after birth at  the
 end of the weaning  period 
                             the enzym 
lactase becomes switched off
The  common  explanation: The digesting system of the young is sufficiently
digest meat, vegetables etc.Thereby no need for a further livelong active Lactase-Enzym .


                                    Mother´s milk being indigestible ?

 Problem I:  The  relatively  oversized  double-molecule  lactose  can´t  pass
a cell mem
bran , i.e. can´t  leave  the  intestinal. To get digestible this ´large´
double -molecule  had  to be 
An  enzyme (Lactase) in  the small
instestine parts the double molecule and
glucose and
galactose can pass the cell membran and get digested.

After weaning                          Problem II  :After weaning  the Llactase  enzyme  becomes  inactivated  and
                                                 indigestable lactose  passes the stomach and enters the small intestine. For
                                                 baby  a problem because it  can´t digest  milksugar any  longer, thus  feeling
                                                 ill  by ease.   (it´s Darwin behind.)

The reason : Milksuger  (lactose) passes  indigested  baby´s steril stomach
and  small  intes
tine  and  enters  the  following  colon.
The  " home"of  masses of  normal germs needed for final  digestion. These
germs  can digest lactose

(Normally glucose  never enters  the colon because sugar becomes comp-
letedly digested in the intestine.)


If after  weaning bayby´s  Lactase enzyme  becones inactivated then "70 gr" 
lactose enters the colon. The colon germs
have  active lactase  enzyms and
can split and digest the large quantity milk sugar.
A procedure slipping out of control causing flatulence, painful  contraction of
muscles and even failure.

Baby begins by experience to dislike milk and step by step becomes  adap-
ted to the
food of  the adults.

                             The evolution has reached  its goal,

         The baby feels  unwell  after drinking and denied  mother's breast
                    Thus the needed emotional mother-infant bonding
                                     becomes ended by the infant
    Milk is no more needed. The next pregnancy becomes possible
                                  The number in a group grows
Darwin´s Theory full in action.

                    The  enzym LACTASE  is part of a biological timing-
                  system optimizing the reproduction periods of mammals


 So far in general the  biological  background  of indigestable milksugar  and
            the  reason for Lactase on and lactase off after weaning

As a rule:  All  mammals  receive  for  a start  mother's milk  but after nursing
                     time mammals lose  the ability to digest full  milk

                           Optimizing  reproduction periods may be the reason

    Problem I:      In certain people lactase activity maintaine  after
    Problem II: There is in Europe a North to South gradient in lactase activity.

Lactase and prehistoric

                            Obviously there is a North to South gradient
                                                  (worldwide s.P.S)


         Thus looking for a Northern area  where  cows  may  feel good.

Needed a temperate climate with a humid atmosphere,a fertile soil, forested
with  deciduous
trees and grass areas. Sparsely populated.

                            Could be the western area of the Baltic Sea
The  Central  European  tundra retreated slowly towards north.
Along the  Danube  and  in  Southern  France  developed  first
clear  forests. Birch, coniferous trees and   hazelbush  spread.
The  gradually  expanding  forests  in Central  Europe  forced
reindeer  and reindeer  hunter to follow the  tundra .

The  post-magdalénian  reindeer  hunter  knows (? ) or  learns that - instead of
 hunting - domestication of "milkable-animals" may improve the feeding basis , provided
 milk is available in sufficient  quantity.

  Thus the Magdalénian reindeer hunters had to adapt to new living conditions

                          Bred back  Auerochs,  instead of reindeers  

All  along  millennia   the  cultural  background  of the Magdalénian  had  been
.Thus no fundamental change was needed.  Instead  of herded (?) rein-
deers , the Auerochs  herded  in  
livestock farming became the fundament of  mesolithic, megalithic culturers  in the North.

Lactase not switched off                               

Certain  human  populations  have  undergone  a  genetic mutation   allowing 
members  of  these  groups to  continue
 consumption of fresh milk  live-long

Strabo ( Greek  historian (30 B.C) indirectly pointed to milkdrinking Norther-
ners  with  the  remark  that  humans  on  the British Isles, though they have
much milk  do  not  make  cheese . ( For a Greek historian a matter worth to

He knows that  in  Greece milk is  primarily used for making cheese but not
drinking .
Skytian, Thrakian, Kimmerian, Hyperborean are from view of
a  Greek  northern  'nomads
-.  They  milk  their  mares,. drink milk  thereby
named "Hippomolgoi "or
" Galaktophagio "Sauter)


The map of percentages for lactase-pesistence in present Europe. A distinct 
                            line  from  north-west  to south east.
In  the North the megalith - funnel cup Culture    Trichterbecherkultur


                    The old question: What became drunk in the cups ?
Notice the small feeding cup. In shape and size used to day in hospitals.

                         Sahara,  Cattle time Rinderzeit 

It is assumed in generall that  the knowledge  to domesticate  animals and to
cultivate the soil originated in the Near East and  reaching  Europe in the  6th -
5th. millenium.  If so then a

Problem Adult lactase persistence is highest in those  regions  where domes-
ticated  animals  are  said to  arive  last  in  Europe  but -problem-  not  where
cattle are supposed to have been domsticated first.(sounds a little bit strange how
to ´incorporate´Darwin ? )

Unknown further whether the Cro-Magnon reindeer hunter already could drink
fresh milk of reindeers, being  Lactase-persistent ?

Compareable  to  the Rickets  (blond)  the key  for understanding  the* Lactase-
Problem*is again a genetic adaptation, following  Darwin´s Theory. The down-
ward ´milk-drinking´gradient from North to South may be  based on a  genetic
selection enforced by


May be that the isolated  post-Magdalénean hunter in  the  North  may become
in  time  cattlel/dairy - farmer and  in  the  run  of  thousands of  years subsisting
more  and more entirely on  the  meat, blood, and at most  primarily on the milk
of  their  herds. The genetic again has to adapt.

After weaning the splitting Lactase enzym was not switched  off  but  remained
in full action a life long.


More to the South milk of sheeps  and  goats is  up  to day  used  primarily not
for  drinking
  but  for  making  cheese .A  possible  reason:  Cheese  is almost
free  of milk sugar
Thereby no lactase is needed to digest cheese.

Problem solved ?  No !   Cheese, consisting  primarily of  the  curd. Tthe  semi-
solid  substance  formed  when  milk  curdles, or coagulates.   Curdling  occurs
naturally  if  milk  is  not  used  promptly  :It sours, forming  an  acid  curd, which
releases whey, a watery fluid (87%) containing the soluble constituents.

                                1 kg                    kg milk            Caloric value
Lipid                        9500 Cal/kg         37gr                  351 Cal  (x 4.18  J)
Protein                     4100                    33                      135
Milksugar (Lactose)  4100                    48                      187

                                                                                      680 kcal 
Problem:  While  cheese  making the milk  sugar remains  in  the whey.  Conse-
quently  cheese becomes  digestible  world  wide  even  for people  which  lack
the enzym Lactase. But there is a  problem for cheese eaters:
                                           By cheese making 
                       up to 25 % of the caloric value of fresh-milk is lost.

Likely  that  HUNGER caused  a genetic  selection which  enabled  at least  the
early northern Magdalénean to digest step by step milksugar. Those who could
might survive an otherwise deadly famine.
           Mutation and Selection in Darwin´s Theory full in action.

The proof of a lifelong active lactase in  Northerners  supports the  view  that in
the North milk had been a vitally basic food.
If this is true, then  the Post-
Magdalenean-Proto-Germans had plentiful reasons to worship the cow
Summing up :All in all: It´s milk behind

                  Sweden                               Denmark                                       Anglo Saxon

                      ------------------       Bronze Age             -----------------                         700 AD

Facit: The fact that in Europe Northerners  almost  ´exclusively´ could digest 
fresh fluid milk during whole life supports the view, that for biological reasons
        The ancient culture of the northern Megalithic area  was  based
  primarily on cattle/dairy farming

but scarcely on agriculture

Benecke, Norbert *Der Mensch und seine Haustiere. (Die Geschichte einer
jahrtausendalten Beziehung. 1994)*


Sauter, Herrman  *Studien zum Kimmerierproblem*   http:

1-milchzucker  May 0.4 , July 06*


In the North a culture of ´hunters´ not of farmers
( In the North  dairy farmer waiting for learning agriculture * ex oriente* ? )


                           Percent of lactose intolerant population:

African Blacks 99                   Asian Indians, South Dravidians 97     Nigerians, Yorba & Ibo tribes 99
Filipino 90                              Bantus 90                                           Thais 90
Japanese 85                           Taiwanese 85                                      Indians, American 85
Greek Cypriots 85                 Mediterraneans 80                               Greenland Eskimos 80
Arabs 78                               Ashkenazi Jews 78                               Mexicans 75
Turks 72                                American Blacks 70                             Peruvians 70
Jews 70                                 Australian aboriginals 70                       Maoris, New Zealand 64
Jews, Israeli 58                      Samoans, New Zealand 54                   Nigerians  20
Finns 18                                Europeans, middle 15                            Pakistanis, NW Indians 10
New Zealand Europeans 9    American Caucasians 8                          Swiss 7
Northern Europeans 5       Danes 2      (more detailed)  (Historic)


                                                   An onsolved ´hidden´problem

                                                                      For bones calcium is needed,~ 1000 mg /day.
                                                                                For ´sole´hunters : Where to get it ? 

 Food                                                           calcium content   http:(german)
                                                                        mg pro 1000 g
Milk                                                                         1230
Joghurt                                                                   1230
Curd -cheese                                                      ~ 1000  
Hazelnut                                                                 2250
Green cabbage                                                    2100
Fabaceous                                                              560
Rye bread                                                               290
Potatoes                                                                 100       

 Apple                                                                        50


To make a daily requirement of 1000 mg of calcium  1 liter milk or 400 gr
 hazelnuts is needed

Problem: What food - calcium was available in the European tundra ?
     Beast of prey  must break up and "digest" bones to get the needed calcium

                    Thus reindeer hunters had to be  milk-drinker ?
                                             or metabolize bones ?


The striking height of Northerners (~170 cm) could be based on the lifelong biologically optimal nutrition  Among others an overplus of calcium.
At least Tacitus wondered about the * hühnenhaften bodies * of the Teutons.

It  is  not  well-known  how  far  milk of reindeers  played  a  role  in prehistory.
A nice Google-story:
A woman, who had employed a girl fled from Latvia as a house aid and soon
to its fright had to state  that the girl neither could deal with the vacuum cleaner,
the washing machine, nor with the different other kitchen devices.
What you can do?” she asked desperately.The girl radiated full pride and said:
“I can milk a reindeer.”    :-

The fat content of reindeer milk is 22%, six times as much as cow's milk. It is the only source of milk for Laplanders in northern Scandinavia, because no other dairy animal can survive in such a cold, hostile environment. It takes two people to milk a reindeer -- one to do the milking and the other to hold the reindeer's horns.


                                  Milk, Dolmen and Mounds

"Dairy  products  were  introduced  into  Korea  as ‘‘western’’foods in recent decades.The domestic dairy production industry began in earnest in 1962 when South  Korea,understate sponsorship, imported dairy cows.The industry,which  produced 48,000 tons of raw milk in 1970, has grown to produce 2.5 million tons of raw milk in 2002.

"Milk - Nearly 90 percent of South Korea's milk output is consumed fresh.----

                                 (Problem : fresh ?  no lactase added ?)

South Korea's dairy industry is a recent development, beginning with the purchase of 2,000 Holsteins from the United States and Canada in 1962.The dairy herd size now (1991)exceeds 500,000 animals, all Holsteins.-----
Growth in milk consumption has averaged about 19 percent annually for
more than a decade. Before the mid-1970's, use of milk and dairy products was very low because of limited production, lower per capital incomes,

Kyeogsanbak-Do (5.Jh.) .   (klick)

Large Dolmen (stone tombs) are known in large number in Asia, Europe and
North  Africa  Worldwide estimated to be approximately 50,000 Dolmen. 60%
of all Dolmen  are to be found in Korea,  therefore it is named as “Kingdom of  Dolmen"

http: Details


In the North a culture of ´hunters´ not of farmers