The  Urnfield culture,
             northern dairy farmer and the Fimbulwinter

Problem: I
t is so far not established  what caused the  European  upheavals
at the end of the European Bronze Age  (1200 BC) The following  attempt  to
formulate an explanation is based on five items  >>taken for true  <<

1.) Mesolithic  Post  reindeer-hunter  isolated   along  millennia  in  the   North survived  as stockbreeder, not as farmer (May be at least a decisive point)
2.) It´s the milk of a cow allowing  the hunters to adapt in a subcritical climate
 (surviving without reindeers.pulling to the North)
3.) Within the Nordic Circle of the Western Baltic Sea a typical North Culture
4.) Allmost ´proven´ the impact of a  climatic  desaster  probably  world  wide .

Juergen  Spanuth  argued  that a ´star´ hit the  earth.  It´s  the  Phaeton  in the
Atlantis story of Kritias/Platon. In  the  North  there  are  no  written references
from this time,  but   about  2000  years  later  the  Fimbulwinter  in  the  Edda appeared. A three years lasting winter.
                              "who still lives if the winter ends?"

The Phaeton is described as a circling glowing corpuscle playing a substan-
tial  role  in  the  Atlantis  story  of  Platon. ( Hypothesis  of Spanuth:  Phaeton
forced  the Northerners / Atlanter to leave their country to survive )


          Could be that a ´sudden ´change of burial rites in the Urnfield Culture
                                           may give an answer.

                                    Deng Hoog , Isle of Sylt  c.2600 - 2200 BC

  Urnfield cultur                                                                            Chronology

4000   BC until  re-Chian    times  (c.AD 600) in  the  North   the   dead  were
buried and were placed in stone or  wooden vaults  over which large mounds
of soil were heaped

The Urnfield culture (c. 1300 BC - 750 BC) is  the  late bronze-age  culture  of
central  Europe. The name estems  from  the  custom  of  cremating  the  dead 
and  placing their ashes in urns which were then buried in graveyards
The Urnfield culture followed the Tumulus culture and  was succeeded  by  the Hallstatt culture.

The ´Ùrnfield  People´ settled in an area of Norhern Poland, Central Germany,
in West France, Central Italy and Northern Spain.  It  is  so far not established
who the ´Urnfield People´ could have been but noteworthy
               Urnfields are not provable within the Nordic Circle . 
             (South-Sweden, Norway,Denmark, Schleswig -Holstein)

0361 0327 0322
            Nordic Circle                                 4th -3th millenium BC                       c.1200 BC
                0327  The older Megalith-graves ( 4th millenium BC ) Along the west-coast only
                     solates. A sandy soil, washed out by the melting waters of the last ice age

                     0322  Spreading of the common-Germanic Griffzungenschwert of the Urnfield

                    With the  beginning  of  the  Urnfield Time  "Griffzungenschwerter"  (grip toun-
swords ) were used in Europa .In  contrast to  the  Bronze  Age "Vollgriff-
- (Full-grip swords) being primarily a status symbol - but  the Griff-
                    zungenschwerter were used for fighting
in Europe around 1200-700 BC
. Hojlandsvandet, Denmark  2: Ruegen, Germany;    3: Mycenae, Greece;
5:San Benedetto in Perillis, Italy;  6: Annenheim Carinthia,Austria;
                   7: Leoben,
Steiermark, Austria; 8: Fucino, Italy;  9: Fucino,Italy; 10: San
                   Benedetto in Perillis, Italy

                   Problem: As a whole about 500 Vollgriffschwerter (Ottenjann) and about
                                     600 Griffzungenschwerter (Sprockhoff) are known.

                                  A ´worldwide´ singular amassment of bronze swords

                                    the key for understanding the European Urnfield time ?

                  Problem  There is so far no established meaning explaining the cause of the
                  sudden change in the burial ritual. The ´sudden´ change from mound burial

The  Urnfield time was not a local event. Around 1200 BC Troia VI, the power-
Hittite, Mycenae and Crete became destroyed. In Egypt Ramses III had to
on land and sea against the  attack of  the sea-peoples.
The  Dorian / Spartan 
appeared in Greece.The dark years ' began, a period
of 300  years cultural
agony and illiteracy. (So  far  unknown  wha t really  did
happen.  Phaeton ?)

In  general a  warlike  behaviou r among   the  culture's  members appears to
been intense; settlements were normally fortified, and  large supplies of
bronze armaments have been found.The slashing sword, with flanged
grips to
protect the handle, was apparently adopted at this time.The uniformity
of  the
Urnfield culture and the persistence of certain pottery and metal forms
had great influence on the later culture of the Early Iron Age. (
Encyclo Britannica)

In Central Germany the nordic intruders mixed with  the native population.
                          A red haired braid from a grave in Hohlmichel

By ´mixing´ with  Germanic words the native Celtic language became an
indogerman language C Agree, may sound a little bit strange :-))    



                                    Viereckschanzen´ Midgermany, Bayern                         klick
        Viereckschanzen (rectangular enclosures 80-140 m, wall with a ditch) 200 BC
        Meaning ? Advancements of the so-called early "Herrenhöfe"(Knight´s  Estates)
        of Urnfield and Early Iron Age, Hallstatt C,D time 800 to 480 BC

                                                  Wagon Garves                                klick

Wagon Graves  With  begin  of  the  Iron  Age  in Central Europe and outside
the Mediterranean world a  social upperclass developed using a new  funeral
ritual. The dead one  was buried  together with a car. The oldest examples of
these  wagon  graves  in  Hallstatt C about  600  BC .Later. the power  centre
shifted from east to the west .http://www.unc.edu/celtic/catalogue/chariots/

Hypothesis:  Far  from  the  coas   the  idea of  boat graves (Sutton Hoo, 620)
became  adapted  to new  *  living- in- the- inland *  conditions ? Instead  of a
boat a wagon was needed to transport the dead towards the otherworld ?

                                    Back to the Urnfield People

If - after Spanuth- the  Fimbulwinter in the Edda caused a three  years lasting 
winter, then a live threatening famine may enforce a southward migration

A martially, brutal time of war.One died more often in fight, famine and disea-
ses.The numerous deceased were cremated and buried in more simple urns
and not in work intensive mound burrials.If so then well explained that  urnfield graveyards have not been found within the Nordic Circle

So  far a  consideration  more  o r less  within  the frame of available data but
here is an amazing new find in the surrounding of  the  Himmelsscheibe  (sky
disk) of Nebra supporting the view  that cattle  farmer had to leave their nordic
homeland by climatical forces
                         Hoards of  Bronze sickle in great number

Problem: "The sickle emerged´suddenly ´within a hort time.There excessive
quantity sets suddenly and in great quantities.One third of the sickle ever laid
down originates from the beginning of  the  urnfield  time  (around 1200 B.C.)
97per cent of all devices between Baltic Sea and low mountain  ranges origi-
nates from hoard finds. A mass find  near Merseburg  is  primas  inter  pares.

With nearly 250 sickles and only few hatchets this  hoard  represents  in Cen-
tral Europe the most extensive  amassment  of  Bronze  sickle.   Other  sickle hoards came into the soil at the same time.

Anywhere otherwise the ´force´of sickle horting is not as enormously as in the
area of the river Saale (Nebra, Sky disk)).Here alone at least  600 sickle had
 laid down at once. The sickle a new symbol of the urnfield time"
(my transl.)

                    What have been these masses of sickles good for ?


                                        Map of European Milk-drinkers.

Supposed that in its origin the northern Eurpeans have been   Post-Magdalé-
nian  reindeer hunter.and lateron became cattle herder and  dairy farmer

Genetically "proven" because they can up  to day  like all  nomads drink fresh
 milk. I.e. the enzyme lactase remains  active a life long. (Haak)
Normal mammals can´1  !

 the Fimbulwinter drives the nordic cattle farmer out from its homeland,
                                         A three years lasting winter.
                                   "who still lives if the winter ends?"

they must take with them the cattles as the  vital  nourishing  basis. Be-
ing  cattle farmer  the can´t  develop and operate from to day on to morow
an effective  agriculture. While on a martial move  they  had  to  fight and to keep
themself  and  the  cattle  alive  and  sufficiently nourished. I.e. sickles in great quantities were needed to harvest fodder from broad-leaved trees and green fodder
( leaves  served till  modern times  as  winter  fodder.)
The cattle farmer won
time to adapt to the new living conditions of the urnfield

Sommerfeld,C .    Mondsymbol >>Sichel<< - Sicheln mit Marken.
                                 in  Meller, H.  Der geschmiedete Himmel 2004

Haack,K,                http://www.mcdonald.cam.ac.uk/genetics/khindex.html

Ottenjann, H.
          Die nordischen Griffzungenschwerter der älteren und
mittleren Bronzezeit Röm. Germ. Kommission, Bd. 30,1969
Spanuth, J.            Atlantis 1965

, E.         Die germanischen Griffzungenschwerter, 1931

1-Urnfied culture-Phaethon-Fimbulwinter  23.07.05

:P.S .The  Urnfield  culture  (c. 1300 BC - 750 BC)  is  a  pre-Celtic  culture  of
central Europe, considered by some scholars to mark  the  origin of the Celts
as  a distinct cultural group.  The name  comes from  the  custom of cremating
the dead and placing their ashes in urns which were then buried in fields. The
Urnfield culture followed the Tumulus culture and was succeeded by the
Hallstatt culture.(Wikepedia)

By mixing a new Mideuropean culture developed generally named ´celtic´

European hill graves (a heap of earth  marking  a  grave, tumulus)  appear  in
Greece at the time of Homer c.800 BC. but mounds are so  far  not  proven in Mykenea

  Deng Hoog , Sylt, 2600 ~2200 BC.
   Thraker ~500 BC                    Marathon, (490 BC.)

Interestingly, the dates for Urnfield are the same as those for Mycenae. And the
traditional date for Homer, ca, 800, comes at the end of the Urnfield culture.

While the Mycenaeans practiced inhumation, and in fact, there it seems to be

NO evidence for Urnfield practices in Greece (and particularly, in Thessaly), we

nonetheless have the funeral of Patroclus in Book 23 of the Iliad, which is both

an Urnfield burial and a kurgan burial -- with human sacrifices, and the addition
of animal sacrifices, the ashes put into an urn and buried at the base of a tumulus
Homer has transmitted to us something very interesting, something that does
not at all fit into the Mycenaean scheme, but nonetheless reflects something

from further north, the steppe perhaps, but more likely,f rom the Balkans,
thing definitely Urnfield-related.

Odyssee 11/70)  Ilias 23/250

Around 1100 BC, it is thought that the Dorians attacked Greece from the north
while the Sea People attacked from the sea. Numerous cities were sacked and

the region entered a dark age. During this period the Mycenaeans adopted iron,

instead of bronze; adopted cremation; and suffered from decreasing population

and literacy rates.