Culture stage of the paleolithic age, designated after the find place La larva line in the French Dept. Dordogne. M. forms the high point of the ice-age culture development in the central and Western Europe (about 15000-9000 B.C..) From this time most works of the palaeolitic small art and numerous rock pictures originate.The culture spread from the Kantabri mountains to the Karparten forms the inheritance of lateice-age hunter groups, with which the hunt for the Ren had temporarily the greatest economic importance. Cave settlements, huts and tent sketches were discovered. Fine needles from bones witness from qualityful made clothes. Beside antlers, bone and ivory devices, slim sickle, scratches and small move-retouched measurers are typical for the versatile inventories of the Magdaléniens.(Brockhaus)
Brand, H.-G. : Die Schweiz zur Rentierzeit (1947); ders. in: Ur- und fruehgeschichtliche Archaeologie der Schweiz,I, (1968)
Schwabedissen,H.: Die Federmessergruppen des nordwest-europ. Flachlandes (1954)
Rust, A. Vor 20000 Jahren
The level of intensified food-collecting cultures of the early Recent period in the Old World is best known from northwestern Europe, and it is with regard to this area that the term Mesolithic has greatest currency to denominate archaeological traces. A classic example of such traces comes from the Maglemose bog site of Denmark, although there are comparable materials ranging from England to the eastern Baltic lands. These bogs were probably more or less swampy lakes in Mesolithic times. At about 6000 BC, when the Maglemosian culture flourished, traces of primitive huts with bark-covered floors have been found. Flint axes for felling trees and adzes for working wood have appeared, as well as a variety of smaller flint tools, including a great number of microlithic scale. These were mounted as points or barbs in arrows and harpoons and were also used in other composite tools. There were adzes and chisels of antler or bone, besides needles and pins, fish-hooks, harpoons, and several-pronged fish spears. Some larger tools, of ground stone (e.g., club heads) have appeared. Wooden implements also have survived because of the unusually favourable preservative qualities of the bogs; bows, arrow shafts, ax handles, paddles, and even a dugout canoe have been discovered. Fishnets were made of bark fibre. There is good evidence that the Maglemosian sites were only seasonally occupied. Deer were successfully hunted, and fish and waterfowl were taken, and it appears possible that several varieties of marsh plants were utilized. At Star Carr, in northern England, there are indications that four or five huts existed in the settlement, with a population of about 25 people.
This description of the Maglemosian must suffice to represent a considerable variety of European manifestations of the level of intensified post-Pleistocene food collecting. The catalogs of the Azilian and Tardenoisian industries of western Europe, of the Ahrensburgian of northern Germany, of the Asturian of Spain, etc., would each differ in detail, but all would point in the same general direction as regards cultural-historical interpretation.