21

                               Dolmen
Stones fallen down from the sky ?
Problem: According to the given hypothesis: The region of the western Baltic
Sea had been along milllennia an isolated settlement area of the northern part of     the Post-Magdalénian reindeer hunter. In this country there are visible numerous big
mytherious stones. Mysterious, because the geological origin of these big stones
was unknown up to the midst of the 19. century.Thereby the question for a naiv neolithic viewer :
Where did the big stone come from. ?

                   
Most of the dolmen were built in the fifth - fourth millennium in northwest Europe in
proximity to the coast. On the Danish islands and in Jutland originally about five
thousand dolmen were registered.The graves got over 5000 years, however in the
last century were used also as quarry.

The dolmen in North Africa, Palestine and at the Black Sea developed in the third -
second millennium B.C, in South India in the first millennium and in Korea- Japan
around 300.(Wiitis).
(The beginnings of the Egyptian buildings of stones become recognizable around
3000 BC. The buildings of stones in Crete and Mykene after 2000 BC.)
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Problem:
   The cultural background and meaning of the dolmen is unkown

(1900) O. Montelius  remarked on reports that Megalithic graves were provable in the  neighbourhood of the Nile, that there is no need
" to penetrate....in particular into the conditions during the Neolithicum here in the North , in order to see that the original homeland of the Dolmen may not be looked for in Europe. - -  A so powerful movement, which was able to influence the kind of funeral of so many and in an area expanded so far living peoples, cannot have gone out  thousands of years BC. in our area ". 

(1902) G.Kossinna tried to prove archaeologically that the Indogerman left the area
of the Western Baltic Sea, wandering southwest. He did not see a connection to the
dolmen.
.
"the whole question of the Megalithic graves always leads to impossible-- nesses, as soon as one wants to develop a genetic connection of all features of this kind in India and the Sudan up to South Sweden."

(1926)  E.Meyer "the Nordic Neolithicum depends totally -- despite its characteristic
inside-  on southern influences"
.
(influences from the eastern advanced cultures are
meant).

(1959) V.C. Childe :"the discussed graves do not belong to an individual culture and were not established by an individual people and were therefore also not used"..

(1989)  J.P. Mohen: "if monumentes resemble each other, then because they all are built in same way, on the simplest. It does not surprise that a large stone chamber built in Ireland in the 3th millennium BC resembles those in South India built at Christbirth"
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

These -even up to day- *high ranking*  assumptions became questionable by the
absolute dating of the graves with the C14 methodC. Renfrew (1971) judged, that

 " the revision of the C-14 data for Europe has a devastating effect on the widespread  traditional time position. The crucial point is not so much that the European data of the third millenium are several centuries older than accepted, but that the data for Egyptdo not change. - -  Now it is clearly that the Megalithic constructions in Brittany were built in former times as 4000 BC., thus one thousand years before monumental grave architecture in the eastern Mediterranean, and 1500 years before the pyramids were 
built.
The origin of the European funeral customs and Monument may not in 
the Near East, but must in Europe be searched "
(emph.edit)

Another possibility: There is no cultural connection. The dolmen developed step by step' world-wide ' coincidentally. One millennium between each step. IF so, then problemsolved, but where to look for if not ? May be the crucial point:

                                    Whereby do stones become ´holy´?

The area of the Post Magdalénian within the range of the western Baltic Sea is
archaeologically little productive. Understandably, because what archaeological trace s should  leave  hunters or  cattle/dairy farmer? Thus so far in the North remarkable only the Megalithic graves, built in the 5t h (?) to 4th mill. B.C. Mythic background * unknown*.


Problem:     Why did the  northern Neolithican  believe  that  they  had  to move laborously big stones in order to built a dolmen ? Conceivable a religious back- ground. but-----.

                                FINDLINGE

                              
                         The dolmen of Lehmsiek. Schleswig-Holstein

Conceivable that these *FINDLINGE* were full of secrets for Magdalénian hunter
immigrating the North, free of ice around 8000 BC. He can´t explain, from where a big stone is to come, a stone lying * alone * far visibly in an otherwise stoneless flat
country. In addition a stone with unnaturally rounded edges.
Was it worked up by gods or giants? The legends in Schleswig-Holstein report of disputes among giants that throw themselves with large stones
Darwin tells in his life history of a farmer, who showed him a *FINDLING* saying that human  never will  be able to  explain  where  this  rock came from.
In a flat  almost *stonless* country the problem
for a thoughtful viewer
     
                             Where did the FINDLINGE came from?


With these big stones the dolmen were built as burial places. Thus conceivable to
assume a  religious background.
 May  be  the  following  technica l view  o f the European - Near East cosmos helps.

 If one regards the sky at night naively (!), then naive questionsmay come up

1.) Why the stars do not fall down?
2.) Why the stars do not change their position among themselves?

For a more technically assessed viewer the stars must have been fastened on an
obviously * stable * wall. 
If so then next: " What does the sky consists of ?" To his
experience a FINDLING made of a *strange* Scandinavian granite was extremely hard and infinitely durable (if compared to a local sand-stone.)
       Did the gods formed-to live in - a granitic and thereby ever lasting sky ?


In addition this *stony* hemisphere turns in the course of a day around a center, the
today's polar star. A more rationally assessed viewer * sees * a world axle, standing
straight up in the north.

This *stony* hypothesis derives support from the linguistics. In German and Indogerman   he words for sky, hammer and stone have related roots
(KLUGE Etymologisches Woerterbuch der  Deutschen Sprache 1989  unter Himmel
*Sky*-- "
 in form and meaning comparably with words for * stone *. in ai (old-Indian) * stone, rock, sky, in Greek * akmon *
)
                                   Dolmen symbol of the cosmos ?
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            DengHoog, Sylt / Germany, second half third millennium
                  (  In its origin a mound of the Kurgan / Battle axt  people ?)

                                                          

                                    
                                  DengHoog Ceramic

          

                    --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Facit:  In general burial places are set up often in proximity of divine * symbols * in
order to rest near the gods. For example in the surrounding field of a pyramid, or direct in Christian churches if possible in proximity of a relic .
In neolithic times:
               
                     The dead placed in a dolmen made of  *divine* stones  

In historical times Dolmen, precursor of later Egytian, Greek and European ´Tempel´ ?
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

P.S.

So far there are no direct references to sanctified stones in the North but  later in
prehistory, in Palestine with the numerous Megalithic tombs. *Admired*  stones are
mentioned in the  
Old Testament 

" and so you wont to make me a stone altar, then you should not use stones  you worked up, because if you pass with your knife over it, then you will  desacrate the stone*  (2.Mose 20.25, s.a.Jos.8.31).
 (May be a cultur
al * interaction* between Magelithic graves, Philistine,
 Seapeople and later Israelite )
A black stone - a meteorite - is admired since oldest, preislamic time by a large part of the Arab tribes in the Ka'aba in Mekka The Pilger wants to touch the stone.

Childe, V.C., The Dawn oF European Civilisation, 1959
Kossinna, G.,  Die indogermanische Frage archaeologisch beantwortet
Z.F.Ethnologie, 34.1902 S.166-222
Kluge, Etymologisches Woerterbuch der deutschen Sprache 1989
Meyer, E.  Geschichte des Altertums, 1926
Mohen, J.P.  Megalithkultur in Europe 1989
Montelius, O.   Die  aelteren Kulturperioden im Orient und Europa, 1903-1923
Renfrew, C. Carbon 14 and the Prehistory in Europe, in Scientific American, 1971
Wittis, H.V.  Die Megalithgraeber in Yamoto aus 3 Perioden der Konfu-Zeit in DHS, 2070

http://www.owlnet.rice.edu/~reli205/nathan_dolmens/dolmens.html



15.09.04
update
1-dolmen-origin

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