Man, cattle and forest pasture
On what basis a neolithic North Culture developed ?
In general the culture in an area substantially depends on the given local economic
conditions, especially temperatur and water supply.The prosperity of Egypt *the gift
of the Nile* was rooted in agriculture, with nomads it´s stock- farming and with the
Inui the basis is the hunt and fishing.
This in mind, concerning the economic basis of the North: The coastal area of the
western Baltic Sea lies on the latitude of Newfoundland and Kamschatka, at that
early time for a human being worldwide an extrem area to live in. A latitude of a
habitat for bears, reindeer and elk.
It´s the golf stream and a mostly constant rainy west wind which allowed
*post -Magdalénian reindeer hunter* to survive in the neolithic North.
Problem: How is one to imagine the beginning of a rein-Hypothesis
deer hunter settlement in the North after the end of the ice
age about 12000 years B.P.?
Could be a fundamental question, because the common
teaching conception connects the cultural development
in the North with the acceptance of a gradual northward
´diffusion´ of agriculture from the more developed Near
East since the 6th millennium BC.
In the North cattle turned a mesolithic virgin forest into an open
* Danish pasture*
If Buffalo (Prairie) or Gnus (Serengeti) can form herds , then a competition between
´cattle´ and deciduous trees may develop. A biological fight, which usually the hard-
wood forest loses, because cattle like the leaves of trees.
They feast in the light forests and prevent thereby the new generation of young trees.
I.e cattle may root out a wood. The study of pollen and spores (Palynology) supports
It is established that alterations in European forest´s makeup were induced by climatic
changes over the many thousands of years since glacial ice disappeared from northern
Europe. A relationship was thus stablished between the pollen content of the peat, the
age ( i.e., position in the bog), and climate. Consequently changes in the pollen
content reflect regional changes in forest composition.
Around 2300 to 1800 B.C.no actual change in the composition of the oak mixed wood-
land in Denmark could be determined in polling contents of the moorlands, probably
however a strong expansion of such herbs, which belong to an open grass landscape.
That points to the existence of around pulling herds of cattle
in far streched pasturland. (Broendsted 1969)
Problem: A culture shaping competition between cattle and deciduous tree developed
An unequal biological fight because regenerating young trees had no chance.
In general the forests lost and became destructetd.
A clearing of open grass landcapes caused by a competition between wood and cattles
is shown up to day in the New Forests in South England. The area served the Normanic
rulers as royal hunting ground and meat supplier. Until to day cattle and horse can freely
pull around in this protected area Between large open spaces are individual forest areas,
which are forest-economically operated. To day these forests are protected by gates
against the cattle.
The post reindeer hunter learned that it was worth the trouble to protect the cattle
against bear and wolf and make its surviving more easier by feeding them during the
The former hunter no longer hunted the auerochs
he learned to take care
The basis of a special cultural development of the isolated Nordic Post-Magdalénian
becomes recognizable A culture shaping partnership, a symbiosis between humans
and cattle develops in the North.
First only one family in a clearing with some cattle. By the forest pasture of cattle young
trees could not sufficiently regenerate .Thereby the clearing, the family and the number
of the cattle became slowly larger and larger. With milk, blood and meat of the cattle
the post Post-Magdlénian former reimdeer hunter could adapt and survive.
The families had to live closely together with their animals in their clearing, because the
animals must be milked daily. Necessarily they needed a sufficient distance to their
neighbours. In consequence they need no villages or even cities.From the point of a
dairy farmer good forr nothing.
Even later on in historical times Tacitus described a typical northern living habit
" It is well known that the people of Germany have not cities,and that they do not even
tolerate closely contiguous dwellings. They live scattered and apart, just as a spring,a
meadow, or a wood has attracted them".Germania (16)
Bronze Age longhouse
The three-aisled longhouse, ‘longhouse’ being used here as a technical term to indicate
a farm with a living area and a byre included. The number of cows that could be housed
in Bronze Age farms was rather large: 30 head may not have been an exception.
Given data seem to indicate that the transition from an earlier two-aisled to the three-
aisled farm took place not much later than 1800 B.C. Whether cows were already held
in the Neolithikum in cow stalls in or at the house is still disputable
Thus cattle represented an important economic, social and ideological factor in the daily
life of northern Bronze Age farmer. Strong support comes from biology.The Northerners
of to day are lactosetolerant. They can drink fresh milk.Normal´ grown up mammalians
can´t..Lactosetolerance is worldwide typical DNA for milk drinking humans (s.later)
Problem: Why did people keep their cattle inside the house? We are so used to it that
we hardly realise that outside the lowlands of north-western Europe the housing of people
and animals in one and the same building is unusual If we go back to the roots of this
tradition, it is generally assumed that its origins lay somewhere in the Bronze Age,
between 1800 and 1500 BC (Fokkens (Google))
Likely to accept a close economical, social and mythological connection. Both cattle
within the longhouse and worshipping the cow appear to have been important symbols
for a northern Bronze Age society.
In the North a
partnership developed, a SYMBIOSIS between
humans and cattle. A culture based on dairy farming.
Broendsted, J. Die nordische Vorzeit, 1960
1-forest pasture 24.10.03
Next In the North Stock-farming or Agriculture ?
For climatic reason agriculture had been *second hand * in the early North