Sky Disk 

   Horizon   - Pyramid Text  - Stonehenge - Cretan Double Axe  -  Gilgal Circle.


                       Bronze / gold 2 Kg, dm 38 cm, about 1600 B.C,
Mid-Germany NEBRA

The golden  part of  the  Horizon   symbolizing  the half  year course  of the sun
midsummer to midwinter. The angle  between the two ends of the ´horizon´
and  the center of  the disk amounts for  82 degrees, exactly the angle between
 summer and
 winter solstice at Nebra. In  England the main axis of  Newgrange
 (winter solstice)
and Stonehenge (summer solstice) form a compareable angle
 of almost 82
degrees too. ( latitude  compareable  to Nebra)

Total  findings. The sword  made  of two  parts .Hilt  and sword sheet. The hilt is
connected with rivets to the sword. (1600 BC.) an older,  relatively  loose connec-
              tion. Swords, probably not for fighting.The rings could be arm rings

 Mycenean sword with four rivets. Compareable time.

                                                  Sun, Moon, Boat   
The  disk was  changed  several times  during its  possible use along  centuries.
On the first disk a sun or full moon,a half  moon and 32 stars  Later  the horizons

were  added.
Whether the ship was added to the disk  before  these horizons is
uncertain more
likely being attached lateron. Still during antiquity the left horizon
was removed


Three planks overlapping in  typical nordic clinker-built  method,.not carvel built

The following considerations are primarily based on biology and pyramid texts.

The Texts were ordered by so far unknown founders.Thus the texts may contain  references  to faith and root of  an early *Egyptian* upperclass (~3500 b.)

 A supposed biological link between Egyptian  to the central European sky disk
                    It is likely that fair hair developed  in NW-Europe. (Rickets
                                        (agree a link may sound rather risky), but..)

The  daughter of Cheops (Khufu)  Hetepheres II with fair hair

  http    (blond tamahu) 

The  `European´ orderer of the  sky disk may have had -- afterTacitus-
a blond daughter too. 


The  Egyptian background in short:

In  the  beginning  Shu - the  oldest  of the Egyptian  gods- separated earth  and 
sky. The chaos ended.The universe became ordered.The earth emerged from a primeval ocean as a primeval hill  surrounded by   a *Winding Waterway* .Dark-
ness was replaced by light and life could begin.


Pyramid Text.T.1022  " I am the primeval hill of the land  in  the midst of the sea
whose hand no earthling have grapsed.

The fundamental religious problem:
The died  earthlings in the Pyramid Text  believed  that at the horizon the depar-
ting  deceased  could  board  the boat of  the sun, meets the gods and  thereby
may attain immortality.   
      Thereby a boat is needed.
(Problem :  in North and South)


The given religious background explains why seagoing  boats feature strongly
in the religion of the Egyptian founders, in the early  religion of the Pharaohs.

P.T.170   The  reed  floats of  the sky are  set  dow  for RH,  that he may  cross
to the horizon, to the place where the gods were borne

Even  the  sun  slides  with a boat over the sky . Its travel  through the noc
underworld  is  endangered  by a  giant queue Apophis,  lying  in the *Winding -  Waterway*  Her  sister  in the  Edda might be  the  Midgard-Serpent, despite
millennia later.

So  far  a  plausible  faith  with a common transport problem. It was well  known
that  nobody  ever  returned  who  tried  to reach  the  horizon behind the ocean.

What to do? A philosopher had an idea.
                         The dead  needed  a ferryman with a boat.         

If so then the next  problem:  The deceased depends upon the good will of the

P.T.1223 If you delay to ferry me  over in this ferry boat, I will tell your names
men whom I know, to everyone.

Later in  Egypt the ´threatening´ ferryman idea faded away
CT. 267 I have cause you to cross the Waterway of the Sky-Windows, to
the  lake and travers the sea (with) the sole of  the foot as if you were performe
on the  
land (Like Jesus, Matthew 14/25) 

The  leisurely streaming Nile took over  the ´ancient´ function of  a *Winding-
Waterway*. The other bank of  the Nile had to symbolize a formerly transcen-
horizon where - in ancient times- gods lived on.
From  the  eyes ,from the sense. In Egypt the origin survived more and more
as a
mythological patchwork.  In Sumer King Gilgamesch  (germ.) needed the
help  of  the  ferryman Urschanabi  to cross  the  deadly water.
In  Greece  the   ferryman  Charon  ´survived´.
 Western Baltic Sea or Egypt ?
              Where did the boat-horizon-ferryman story emerge ?
An assumption. If the mythic basis of a natural religion is primarily given by the
living  conditions  within a  settlement area  then a * technical * coupling of sun
boat and horizon allows to speculate about an origin area.     North or South ?
Egypt.The idea to cross a *Winding Waterway*  to reach  the horizon sounds
strange if supposed to be  in its origin a ´native-born´ Egyptian idea. Because
the pharaoh, looking  around to  the horizon  saw  no ocean, saw deserts  only,
nevertheless being  convinced that he had to pass an ocean - and not a desert-
to meet the gods at  a holy horizon.(Wher gods were born)

           Spirale     Pheops (2575-2465 b..)                                                              Oseberg, Norway 800   (Rekonstruktion) Spirale
The  horizon of the  *Atlantic* appeared  to a coast dweller like a line, part of a
circle completely far outside. No one  trying  to reach the horizon ever returned.
Obviously along the Atlantic shores the horizon was unattainable for ´earthlings´.
Thereby  the visible  horizont likely to be a visible transcendent area,, a divine territory,  an area gods could believed to live in .



Ales Stenar
 A northern  mythical  relation  between  ship,  sun  and  horizon is symbolized in numerous Scandinavian ship-settings. Stone alignments having
the form of a boat.The bow is directed
to the setting of the sun at summer and
stern marked the rising sun at winter solstice. Google)

The boat burials at  Sutton Hoo and Oseberg  may point  at the same mythical direction

Facit :                           

                                                     Sun, boat and horizon
at  the Nebra disk make  sense.The sun  barque  contacts  the
horizon only
whithin the horizon section shown. Only  within this
82 degree  range  the
deceased could  board  the sun barque. Consequentially  that  only  this  divine range  of  the  horizon is
and not the complete


of a meso- neolithic *seaborne  natural  religion* in NW-Europe

                                                     Sky Disk and  Stonehenge

                                                       Could  be that  after
                                                       sun,  horizon and ship -
                      even  the moon on  the disk may
be related by means of a


                                                           Luna  Solar Year
                                                           moon    sun

Around 350 b. the Sicilian  historian  Diodorus described  a  temple often sup-
posed to be Stonehenge:

Hecateus [c 350 B] and certain others say that in  the  region beyond  the land
of  the Celts [Gaul] there lies in  the ocean an island no smaller than Sicily.This        
island is inhabited by the Hyperboreans There is also on the  island a  magnifi-
cent sacred precinct of Apollo and a notable temple adorned with many votive
offerings  and  spherical  in  shape. They  also say how  the moon viewed from
this island appears to be but a little distance from the earth.....the god visits the
island every 19 years, the period in which the return of  the stars  [astron] to the
same place in the heavens is  accomplished;  and  for this reason  the 19-year 
the Greeks called it  "the year of Meton"  (Diodorus Siculus, II).

                                                                                                    decoded stonehenge

                                  STONEHENGE and the 56  Aubrey  holes
                                 (  the white points at the  outer  ring- ditch )
Sun  and moon  ecliptics technically two oscillations overlaid along one phase displacement.  Smallest difference after 56 years.

                                                                                    A calculation

  L      =   oscillating motion of the moon reaching its extrem azimuthal
                  postion in 18,61 years =   6630 days

 Year  =   356.256 days  


           Years ((porblem)
                               36                                  55
                                 6413 -1L= -217        12825 -2L = - 434      19594 -3L = - 296
        26007- 4L = - 513                                                                 (356.256 x18) -6630
 19                          37                          56
                                6768 -1L = + 138       13181 -2L = - 78        19950 - 3L = + 60 
        26363 - 4L = -157 

           0                20                          38                           57                                  75
-1L = + 495       13 538 -2L = +277      20366 - 3L = + 412
     26719 - 4L = 199

After 56 years the difference of sun and moon ecliptic amounts to 60 days only
                       The  gods meet in the  holy´ Luna Solar Year

"the  god  visits  the  island every  19 years, the period in which the return of the
 stars [astron] of the same place in the heavens is accomplished";
Diodorus Siculus,II -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

                                                        this in mind

All  philosophical  disciplines of  the  Pythagorean are based on mathematics
                                                       ~ 600 BC.

>> things are numbers < <
>> things exist as image of numbers<<
>> the elements of numbers are the elements of things<<;
> > the whole sky is a harmony and a number<<
                          ( natural science pure :-))

                                       Metzler Philosophen Lexikon 1995

An  assumed  mathematical  order  of  the  cosmos  is  the  architectonic key of
Doric temple. Columns supporting the sky The understanding of the cosmos
           in  its
origin  the belief of an ´European´ seafaring  upperclass ? 
                         Dorer,Pythagorean and Hyperborean
related ? 


                                Four symbols on the Himmelsscheibe -
                                      sun, moon, boat
and horizon -
may point within a given context  to a neolithic ´European´  sunreligion of early
                                             seafaring Megalithicans

        It is more a problem to find a  context for the fifth symbol on the disk, the stars

Encyclo Britannica >> Stonehenge<< "
"Gerald   Hawkins,  purported  that  Stonehenge is  a complicated computer
dicting  lunar  and of solarly eclipses.This speculations, however.have 
been severely
criticised  by  most  Stonehenge  archaeolists.  "Most of what
has  been   written   about
  Stonehenge  is  nonsense  or  speculation , 'said
R.J.C. Atkinson, archaeolist from
 the  University college, Cardiff.."  "No one
wants more  ever
have a clue what its significance was."(Could be, but ------ -:)

Furthermore, the 56 year period  is not  in  fact  a reliable method of predicting
eclipses and it is now accepted that they never  repeat their date and  position
                over three consecutive 18.61 year-long lunar cycles

 Problem::(Hawkns) 3 x 18.61 = 55.83 a quasi constant with a deviation of 0.3 % !
        After 300 years the beginning count-stone has to be transferred by one stone



                                                  Himmelsscheibe and  Crete Double-Axe
agree may in part sound a little bit strange :-)

                                                    Himmelsscheibe     ------Crete Double Axe--------             - on Krepis.
                                                                                                                                                ´ a socketed pedestal´
                                                                                                                                                       primeval hill

"the  Hall  of  the Double Axes," from  the frequent occurrence  of  this symbol
therein.    Not  only  does  the  sacred  axe   occur  as  a  more  or  less  crude

on  the  stone  blocks  composing certain  pillars in the palace, but
little models  of
  it  were  found  associated with an altar, and, in the Dictaean
cave, some  miles  distant,  several  bronze  specimens of  the axe  were  dis-

covered in circumstances which show that they were votive offerings.-----------
                     Sometimes the sacred symbol was set up on a socketed pedestal

     Fig. 9. Double Axe and Stepped Steatite Socket from Dictaean Cave.rom Archæolagia,
kind permission of the Society of Antiquaries, and  Sir Arthur Evans)  
                                             The double axe realy  an axe ?

                          Nefertari    Mykenae Shaft IV     An old drawing of two figures  Broholm Grevens  Vaenge,
                           Egypten        between the horns `                     Denmark.One figure only ´survived´. Twins ?
                          ----------symbols´ of the sun----------


                                      Celtic´ Neckring   Large storage pot with double axe design. (1.3 m)   Knossos
                                                double spirals  ~ 500 BC                      Double ´axe ´with spirals

                                                    If taken for true that headband, neck-, arm-, and footrings were  symbols of the
                                                    horizon-line along the Ocean,  then likely to link symbols of the sun passing the

                                                                 Horizon, sun and horn symbols of an ´European´nature religion ?
                                                                                   (´seaborne´ horizon  of seafaring megalithicans ?)

                                                 ------------------- ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

(Sky disk)

                                                                                                  Gilgal- Golan Height


                                                                 Himmelsscheibe                                                    Gilgal 

                                                  A  horizon   segment comparable  with  the  Himmelsscheibe  is  known on the
-Height  in  Palestine. A stone circle with a segment of ~ 90 degrees;  in
                                                  the  closer
environment  ca  800  puzzling  dolmen. The  name of the  circle



                                                                                          in  North and South


                                                               A deadly water between "earthlings" and Gods

   Thus in general in North and South a religious problem                                                                                                                                                                             How to pass the water.

Coffin Text  62  I have cause you to cross the Waterway of the Sky-Windows, to
cross the lake and travers the sea (with) the sole of the foot as if you were  per-
forme on the land

Matthew 14.25 in the fourth night virgil Jesus came to them and went on the lake.

                                                  To pass the water a ferryman is needed in Egypt and Sumer  (Gilgamesch),  in Greece , Rom
                                                  and  in Skandinavia.

Compareable  water-problems had the Israelits on their way from  Egypt to  the
 promised land, a  land flowing with milk and

Reaching  the river Jordan.The  LORD stopped for a  while the waterflow of the
river thus the
Isrealit could pass a " dried" river as if they were performe on land.

Joshua  4

 In the future, when your children ask you, 'What do these stones mean?' 7 tell them that the flow of the Jordan was cut off before the ark of the covenant of the LORD. When it crossed the Jordan, the waters of the Jordan were cut off. These stones are to be a memorial to the people of Israel forever."

23--The LORD your God did to the Jordan just what he had done to the Red Sea  when he dried it up before us until we had crossed over.

Problem: The stone circle on the Golan Heights could have  been  built  around ~ 3000 b. Thus unlikely to suppose a  mythological  relation to the Israelits a millennium later

    Likely:  A strange ´megalithic icon whose impact could not be ousted.                                 To solve the problem: Incorporate the icon.

                    (In the Gothic comparable adjusted apostles support along with columns the starry sky)


Broholm, C.     Anthropomorphic Bronze Age Figures in Denmark.
                         Acta Archaeologica 18,1947
Hawkins, G.S. Beyond Stonehenge 1973  
Meller, H.         Der geschmiedete Himmel ( Begleitband zur  Sonderaustellung
                         Landesmuseum fuer Vorgeschichte Halle (Saale) 2004

12.02, 08.06 update

Stonehenge  04. 09

          next:  ´Porthole´ in Sweden und Egypt