18.3

                               
 

                               The religion of cattle/dairy - farmer

In general religious symbols are viewed as manifestations of deities
that were originally identified with objects of nature


Thereby: If gods - being  objects  of  the nature of a  settlement area -
have corresponding   characteristics,   then  geographic  or  climatic
details should  be  present  in the  faith  itself.  A  thunder god should
develop  more likely in an area with thunderstorms.  A  sea  god  will
scarcely grow up in high mountains or in a desert.

As shown, there are references that in a neolithic European  religion
 the   sun  was  worshiped.  Its  symbol  is  supposed to  be  a  spiral.  
 Within the frame of a *naturereligion* a sun religion should originate
 more likely in a *cold* North than in a *hot* Egypt.

Problem: Beside spirals,  where  did  horn-symbols  originate?  The
horn as a symbol of gods and kings is proven   during 4000 years in

Europe and   Near East.  The  range  covers  Egypt,  Sumer,   Crete,

Mykenae, Sardinia, Cyprus,Greece, Denmark, AngloSaxon.

                                                    
 
                                                     Sumer,  Ur             Sumer 2200 B.C..   Sumer 2100 B.C..    Cyprus 1000 B.C. 

                                                        

                                          Denmark   200 BC         Celt   600 BC            Alexander  400 BC   Anglo Saxon  400 AD

So far  it is not  settled  where  this   supposed   wide  spread  *horn-
religion*´  did or could   originate .
Where  to look  for an origin  of  a
horn cult in  an  area  between Sumer  and  the  Anglo-Saxon?  With  
4000   years  between !
    May by a link:, 

               A sun-spiral often appears together with a cattle horn.
                                 A helpful prehistorical reference ?
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Problem:As shown  archeology offers only  horns  worn  so  far  as  a
status
symbol. But Adam of Bremen an important German  medieval
chronicler,
second half of the 11th c described as a "Holy-Land",  the
 island of to day
*Helgoland*. (Fosetisland.)

Its source:"The  life of the holy  Willibrord". Its author the Anglo Saxon
Alkuin ( died.804).   *  At the  border  sheath  between  Friesian   and
Danes, on  the  island  Fosetis-land  are  to  have been the  holy sanc-
tuary of  the old-Germanic  God Fosete.
There  Willibrord  is to  have slaughtered the holy cows of the Fosete.
*
(full text see p.s.)

At  the  same time  Bonifatius, -* the missionary of the German* - falls
724 a  holy oak.I  n the age of 80 years killed by the Friesian.720 Karl
the Graet destroyed the Irminsul of the Saxon

          

                            Helgoland. Island in the German Bay
                 
After Juergen Spanuth the centre of ATLANTIS

It is supposed that  besides  worshiping the cow there is a  reference
to a northern sun religion  On Helgoland in a stone grave of  the older
Bronze Age a skeleton of a  man placed  west-east  was  found. Two
golden spiral  disks lay to  both sides of the dead
one.

Problem: So  far  archeology  offers  only  poor  arguments to support
the hypothesis of
a culture shaping dairy farming in the neolithic North.
                       (What archeological traces really left cattle farmer?)
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The given hypothesis of cattle /dairy farming in the area of the western
 Baltic  Sea  is  primarily  based  on  biological  data.  It´s  the  enzyme
Lactase  and  the  metabolizing of  Lactose  which  remained in action
                       lifelong in the  North but not in the South

                   To my
feeling:a fundamental point n European prehistory
)
After  Herodot  the Cimmerian (Kimbern, Jutland ! ), Skyten,Thracian
 and Hyperboraeer drank the  milk of  mares.  For a Greek  obviously
a leading point of  view  a characteristic of the orthern *  Hippomolgoi *
 or * Galaktophagio * (Sauter)
Magdalénian (?), Saudi,Tuareg, Massai,
 Libyian (Herodot) Pharaoh > Hatshepsud<.

For biological  reasons  the " milk-drinking  genetic"of  the  Northerners
based  on Darwin´s Theory " adapt or perish refers to a myth  of cattle/
dairy farmer subsisting livelong  almost
entirely on the meat, blood, and
milk of their herds.

      Thus a  cow worshiped
as a mother-goddess seems reasonable.
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This more biological view   - based primarily on the biological aspect of
the  problematic  Lactase-Problem - could  explain  
horns being  a  high
ranking symbol in a cattle pasture  area. A  land covered with
grass and
broad-leaved trees.

Such pasture area is the area of the western  Balic Sea (Denmark)  Up to 
day  a  region known for optimal  cattle breeding.

  The ritual horns being a symbol of an age-old, nordic Nature religion of
                                              cattle/dairy farmer

*age-old *,  because the  genetic adjustment by selection for digesting
fresh milk 
could  (must not) need  thousands  of  years in a  strictly  iso-
lated area
(The lactase level
of Magdalénian reindeer hunters is unklown)
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                                                                  Egypt

More  difficult to explain the mythical background  of horns in Sumer and 
Egypt   Beginning  with  an old  so far  not  settled egyptological problem

                                   
                                                       Hathor                       

 What is or could be the mythical origin of  a  woman´s  head  with  horns
and ears of a cattle?
Narmer-Palette, c. 3000 b. Hathor, oldest  Egyptian
goddess., closely connected with maternity,.
a goddess of the   sky,  love
and dance.
Hathor is  closely  related to the Greek Aphrodite

                                                                                                                                                                    Hatschepsut  1480 b.                                    

Queen Hatschepsut drinks at the udder of the Hathor-cow and points
thereby to her close relation with the goddess. Genetically the queen
obviously belongs to people with a lifelong lactase activity .

Problem:Native Egyptians can´t digest fresh milk. Hatschepsut a Libyan ?.
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Hypothesis:The invading predynastic meanwhile *seafaring* Post-Magda-
lenian reindeer hunter formed an upperclass
in the eastern Mediterranean
(Palestine, Egypt, Mesopotamia )

In the course of time invading northern cattle farmer  adapted  to  the more
optimal natural conditions for agriculture along the Nil,

The consequence
           
At the Nile milk of a cow was no longer a vital basic food

So far there are no referrings that milk  contributed substantially to the nutri-
tion of the native Egyptian.The regular annual  inundations of the Nile made
a far higher yield possible than dairy farming.

The advancing Egyptian  high-culture  had  other cultural  points of  reference
and  the 
cow  became  in  the  daily experience of the population a matter of
minor significance.
The admired cow survived * holy*' in a more or less reflec-
ted ritual of the ruling rupper
class. (From the eyes from the sense)

The later referrings in Egypt  to large  cattle herds  property  particularly as
Libyan  booty- are  not logically  to equate  with  referring  to  dairy  farming,
to the existence of milk cattle at the Nile!.
Herodot (4/186) *The
Libyan could drink milk*. Obviously a noteworthy  point
for a
Greek reporter.
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                                                                      Sumer

             Despite unfavorable ecologic conditions cattle in Sumer were adored
                                                         as well as in Egypt
   

                                  

                   

a,b)  Fries  on  the  wall  of Obaid  in   the   proximity  of  Ur     (5200-3500 b..)
Water-birds
made of limestone and cattle from  pieces  of shells.
Inserting work


c)
Roll seal after Fara, Meselim (2600 b.). Bull human being

d-e) Sumeri kings . Naramsin (2200 b..) and  Urnammu  (2100 b.).   The horns
of
four cattle  laid on top of each other.The artist is not yet  common with the perspective representation of the horns.
Priests while taking  care  of  the  cows  wore 
caps  with horns.  (Moortgat).

g,)
Fragment from a wall painting from the palace in Nuzzi (1500 b.)  A Bukra-
nium, an ageold symbol,  used already in  the Tell Halaf period  (5050-4300
d.)

f) Roll seal, cattle with barley-feeds.These pictures are inter-
preted  with  the reference that south Mesopotamia  had  no
natural pastures.
The animals  were  fed  probably  among  other  things  with
grain (Moortgat) (such a picture in  Denmark?)


The milk  of  the  sumeric Nin-khursag  served  the king and  the priests as a
devine meal (Woolley). Comparably the function of Hathor in Egypt.

Problem: In Egypt and Sumer  for  climatical  reasons  the  ecological  condi-
tions for a vitally necessary and  thus culture-shaping dairy  farming were not 
given.
Thus the question may arise  how  the  two ' Milk Goddess ' could have been
                  born´ in Egypt and Sumer in the context of a nature religion?
                   What * life emergency* the Milk-Goddess should turn away?
                             What was the sumerian adorant begging for? 
                                    (the ability for digesting milk sugar , Lactose?)

Facit:
      For climatic and ecological reasons it is unlikely that native Egyptian and
                    Sumerian should worship sun and cow. The given hypothesis:

The origin of the Egytian *Milk-Goddess* Hathor and Sumeric Nin-khursag
        could have been the neolithic pasture areas of  Northern Europe

                                                     (Admit may sound a little bit "strange" :-) 

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                                  Where did the  Milk-drinker in Egypt and Sumer come from ?
        

                            
                                      Ur   (Royal Cemetry)     2500-2350 BC                                         Ur - Obaid

                                                   
                                                                
Golden  double spiral

 a)  Anthropomorphic arranged bull head.  Bronze    a) Bull head, copper, poured
 b) Silver boat, 10 rudder places, 60 cm                    b) Bull,  62 cm, copper  (a-f  Obaid)   
 c)Dechsel (transverse axe) from gold, 15cm            c) Wood column at the temple of Obaid
 d) Decoration, double spiral, gold                              d) Model of an axe formed out of loam
 e) lyra    wood- gold, height of 160 cm                       e) flat hatchet or chisel from copper 
                                                                                         f ) dagger from copper                                                                                                       g) Axt, Bronze, (Ur)
                                                                       h) Awl, Ur 
                                                                       i) Copper ----- hammered !
 

The tools in the king´s graves of Ur and Obaid.  Among  other things
                     the four tools needed to build a clinker boat.

1.) An axe, to fell a tree
2.) A wedge to split a tree into longitudinal direction.
3.) A Dechsel,a transverse axe, to arrange the planks
4.) An awl to bore holes through planks (Wolley)

                                            

Noteworthy the carpenter hatchet from gold in a royal grave.  Wolley assumes
 
that  the king was the * Master Craftsman *.   A  craftsman   king  of seafaring Sumerian ? The ship in Egypt and Sumer a  symbol of power ?

As  in  Egypt (Cheops)  a  ship  needed  to cross  the ´deadly´ water to  reach
 the ´holy´
horizon ? A ship in Sumer ( Gilgamesch  (germ.) was needed to cross
 the deadly water.)

The  golden  double  spirals,  the  Lyra  in  form  like  a  boat - wih long steves-
and  the spiral at Narmer´s crown can - insofar - hardly  be  explained within a
Near East context.
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Woolley:    "the  Sumerian  brought  the  use  o f metal  from  its original home-
land , wherever it may have been.... ............. It becomes obvious that the Early
Bonze Age in Europe is obligated to thanks to the civilization of the Sumerian directly.
"

Royal Cemetry (Ur)       n=11  Sn = 9.5%                             2500-2350 Kisch                                                           n=7    Sn = 8%
Obaid 1.Dyn                  n=5    Sn = 4%
                                        n=1  Sn  = 7.9%
                   

                                  Sargon of Akkad  no further bronze !   

Sargonid                      n=5   Sn= 0.75%                              2350-2150 Susa                                                         n=6   Sn= 0     
                                      n=1  Sn 1.63%                                             2200 b.

                                    Tin of bronze in Mesapotamia
                                     Wolley, Plenderleith,Witter (1934 ! )

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Summing up:
The difference between the cultures in north and south was due to the
climate.
The natural habitat of the reindeer hunters of the Magdalénien  culture was
the
Central European tundra.
(15000-9000 ) Thereby, the descendant, the Post-Mag-
dalénian were not  peaceful farmers  but weapon-wearing individualists. Later
on
  free cattle/dairy farmer which - to  the  disappointment   of  archaeologists-
did not
see  why to  pay   -with a sword in hand -  voluntarily  for ´useless´ high  
culture monu
ments like pyramids.
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P.S. A link to Gilgamesch

The later religion of the Northerners  supports  the  view  of a
martial society .In historical times  it  is said that
 only  a man
dying with the weapon in his hand comes
to god, to Odin

Naked   unprotected ´celtic´ warrior wearing a  neckring  and
horns. Looking for death with a weapon in hand ?



In the Edda:
"the Hel (daughter of the Loki, sister of the  Midgard-serpent and
the Fenriswolf
)
threw he down to Niflheim and gave her force  over nine worlds
that she those would
  instruct dwelling, which were sent to her, such that died at
age or illness
 
"(Gylfaginning 34)

3000 years before    comparably  also  the  ' martial ' self understanding  of the Sumerian  king Gilgamesch. (germ.)  With  his  departure  to  the  guarded  cedar
forest Gilgamesch says:

          A fight I stand, which I do not know, 
             A way I go, which I do not know."

       ----------------------------------------   

           A name, which lasts, I want to set

The  point is not for what one fights, the point is how.  The self-image of a rest-
less warrior ?  A  caste, whose  honouring  could not become a  fair  codex for
Enkidu
being  a friend of Gilgamesch, because he was afraid in the fight                      

"friend who falls there in the battle, is lucky,   
        however I bear disgrace in dying."
                     


                            The combined data may support the view that

                              There could have been be a wide spread                                                                                             Neolithic Eurpean- Near East mythical contex.


-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------



P.S.
Medieval Sourcebook:
Alucin (735-804): The Life of Willibrord, c.796 (§ 10)
Now whilst this energetic preacher of the Word was pursuing his iourney he
 came to a certain island on the boundary between the Frisians and the Danes,
which the people of those parts call Fositeland,[l] after a god named Fosite,
whom they worship and whose temples stood there. This place was held by
 the pagans in such great awe that none of the natives would venture to meddle
 with any of the cattle that fed there nor with anything else, nor dare they
draw water from the spring that bubbled up there except in complete silence.
 On this island the man of God was driven ashore by a storm and waited for
 some days until the gale died down and fair weather made it possible to set
 sail again. He set little store by the superstitious sacredness ascribed to the
 spot, or by the savage cruelty of the king, who was accustomed to condemn
 nolators of the sacred objects to the most cruel death. Willibrord baptized
three persons in  the fountain in the name of the Blessed Trinity and gave
orders that some of  the cattle should be slaughtered as food for his company.
 When the pagans  saw this they expected that the strangers would become
 mad or be struck  with sudden death. Noticing, however, that they suffered
 no harm, the pagans, terror­stricken and astounded, reported to the king
 what they had witnessed.
[1] Fositeland or Heligoland.


Erman, A.,  Die Religion der Ägypter 1934
Helck, W., Geschichte des Alten Aegyptens (Handbuch der Orientalistik, 1968)

Moortgat, A.,   Die Enstehung der sumerischen Hochkultur 1945

Plenderleith, H.J., in Woolley S.284 ff
Spanuth, J.,   Die Atlanter 1976

Schott A, von Soden W. , Das Gilgamesch Epos, Reclam 1958

Sauter, H. , *Studien zum Kimmerierproblem*, www.kimmerier.de

Witter, W., Die Kenntnis von Kupfer und Bronze in der AltenWelt, 1938

Woolley, C.L. ,  Ur-Excavation, The Royal Cemetry, 1934


1-horn-religion 05.02.05 upd.
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