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  Megalithic Tombs, Horns, Spirals, and the         Holy Ring in Europe and the Middle East

                      Symbols of a European original religion?
                                        Working hypothesis

                                            Dieter Braasch

 Start: Dieter Braasch,> Pharaohs and Sumerians - megaliths from the north 1997                    Significantly stimulated and founded on the ideas of Jürgen Spanuth

                                               Dolmen of Lemsieck, North-Gemany   The´bed´ of king Og (Dtn 3,11)
Rix, H.://ww                                    Aman/Jordanien (Foto Tourmus)



                                                               Dolmen, Horns and Spirals are provable in large number
                                                                        along 4000 years in Europe and Near East

                                                               a                           b                           c
Impress of a seal, Meselimzeit, 2600 B.C. Sumer

God (?) with horn, tail and ´axe´.Rock design Bronze Age, Sweden

> ionic< double spiral, Temple of Seth in Nubt (Egypt, 18. Dynasty)

                                                        d                                             e                                    f

 d) The `Kykladen-pan´,  third millennium B.C. Museum Athen
e)Turkey (central). Acemhöyük (Purushanda). Clay nodule (sealing) with impression of stamp seal. Continuous spiral and guilloche. Middle   Bronze Age. Old Assyrian trading colony period www
f) Picture stone ,Gotland, Sweden, 5th century AD

Problem:   Both symbols - horn and spiral - may have an explicit sacral meaning. Gods, graves, kings, spirals in Newgrange and at the Ionic columns , Nordic swords etc

        Conceivable a kind of ancient european ' religious symbol writing´

                     N W-Europ-   ´Denmark´     Egypt     Kurgan-    Greek   ´Celt´. 
                    coast                                                    Cultures                 Roman

Sunreligion      ( + )                ++               +++           ++            ++          +     
Spirals               ++               ++++            +                ++            ++          ++
Horns                 +                  + +               ++             +               +            +
Ring-Crown       +                   ++               +++           +++            +          ++
Mound               ++                ++                (+)             ++              +           ++
Boat grave        +                   ++                ++              --                --           --
Chariot tombs   --                   --                  --                +                --          ++
Fair haired        --                  +++               +                --                ++         +

Hypothesis: Parts of the Mid-European Magdalénean reindeer hunters migrated into the virgin, ice-free area of the western Baltic Sea. In a subcritical northern climate the hunters had a chance to survive by developing neolithic dairy farming. They had a vital reason to worship the sun (Spiral) and the ´life giving´ mother-cow. (Horn)

                 It is supposed that after the end of the last Ice Age
 in the North of Europe a culture of cattle/dairy farmer developed

(A culture not primarily based on agriculture

The surrounding coasts with abounding fish offered a new hunting ground. Consequently a need arose to develop sea-usual ships. The European rivers -at least the Danube- could be used like a neolithic * highway*. Thereby the descendents of the northern Magdalénean hunters got an extraordinary freedom of movement.
Probably at least since the 4th millennium B.C the Northernes reached the Aegean, the mediterranean,the Black Sea and Palestine / Mesopotamia within one summer. Archeological and biological data may support this  view.

                          ( Facit )                    Atlantis and Stonehenge decoded 

  Five  pairs of Poseidon´s  twin male children in Platon´s Atlantis story
            five pairs of twin standing stones (menhirs)  in Stonehenge



   The development of a northern culture, based on dairy                                                   farming

  The geographical isolation of the western Baltic Sea
  The North, a geographical trap for  post-Magdalénean reindeer                hunters

Ultraviolet Radiation, Vitamin D and Rickets
    Where did  fair haired people come from ?

Reindeer hunter, cattle and forest pasture
   Cattle may root a wood and help Magdalénian hunters to survive in        the North as herdsmen

Stock-farming or agriculture ?
    For climatic reason agriculture had been *second hand * in the early       North up to historical times.

The problem of Mediterraneans to drink fresh milk
   The Lactase gradient from North to South. Biology  pointing to   dairy-    farming. ( No adult mamalin can digest milk !)

 In the North a culture of ´hunters´ not of farmers
    In the North dairy farmer waiting for learning agriculture * ex oriente* ?

Post-Magdalénian-Proto German
 Isolated  Basque and Germans can´t have been Indoeuropeans

                    The origin of seagoing sewn clinker boats

Ancient shipbuilding I
     Technical ship-building standards in the neolithic North 

 Ancient shipbuilding II
      Problems to built saegoing ships in Egypt. No long  timber vailable..

 Sea People

     Foreigners with  *Pre-Viking-ships* and horned helms attacked               Ramses III

Ancient sail-ship


                       The cosmos in Europe and Near East

The cosmos in Pyramid Text and Edda
     Sky supported by a *World axle*. A pimeval hill surrounded by an             ocean
 Sacred ´sea-borne´ horizon and ferryman
     After death a ferryman is needed in Egypt (2400 BC ) and in the             North ( AD 1000 )
The horizon, symbolized by a ring and later by a crown
     Who wears a ring symbolizes that he is close to the Gods

The *ring* in Egyt and Europe (Greek, Georgian, Roman ,Celt, German)
     Neck-, arm- and footrings widespread in Europe and Near East

        An ancient European - Near East  natural religion,
                            worshipping SUN and COW

The spiral, a symbol of the sun-course
    Widespread symbol of an European- Near East sun relgion

 Where did an European-Near East sun religion develop ?

    Worshipping the sun in ´hot´ Egypt or ´cold ´ North ?

Religion of milk drinking cattle/dairy  farmer in Egypt and Sumer 

    Northerners ,Egyptian and Sumerian wearing horns and worshipping       the * holy cow*

            Dolmen, Greek Temples and Gothic Cathedral

Origin and meaning of dolmen

    Holy stones (Findlinge) fallen down from a stony sky

From Dolmen to Egyptian stony burial chambers
    Holy stones and the significance of gabled  roofs

Greek temples and Gothic cathedrals

   symbols of the cosmos ?


The mythic  meaning of  ´rings -torques´
     Closed neck rings, too small in diameter to be pulled over the head.´

 Development of Mediterranean sailing ships
   The problematic position of the mast food  in early sailing ships

The *82 degree* horizon on the Sky Disk of Nebra

   The Pyramid Text, and the blond daughter of Cheops.

Georgia  culturally connected with the North?

  Arm- and foot rings. Viking boats (?) and tumulus (Kurgan))

Megalithic  ´Port hole´ in Sweden and Egypt

  In Sakkara  a Mastaba closed by a slab with a Port Hole´.

 Atlantis, Phaeton, Sparta

Atlantis the northern Bronce Age origin of ´Greek´  Sparta ?  

 Dolmen in Palestine and Salomo´s Temple

 The storry of Salomo grew in the surrounding of thousend of  dolmen

Olympic Games at summer solstice ?

 The summit of an originally northern sun religion ?

Irish Cross with spiral and ring / horizon

Nordic Swords, Spirals and Dorian
The North a ´center´´ of metallurgy ? Tin and iron from the near-by Erzgebirge

 Pyramid- Coffin Text



                                         Post-Magdalénian freshmilk drinker