Urheimat and basic language of  Indoeuropean and                                                                           Proto-German
                                                        or

                               Basques and German can´t have been Indogerman
   
                                                   
                                                      
and  

                                       German - Jus primae noctis   - Indogerman
                                                          Right of the frst night

                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

                                                 
       
                 .

The " Kurgan Model " of Gimbutas (Kurgan  ~ Mounds)) The red
range is accepted as Urheimat.
(s.P.S.)

There is no doubt  over the strong eastern influence on the culture
in the eastern Balkans, Central Europe and even Northern Europe.
The Kugan  peoples  and  the Proto - Skyten  orientalized  Europe
and accelerated the development of new technologies. ”

(Gimbutas)
(my trans.)
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


In contrast to the Gimbutas hypothesis in the following a mesoneo-
lithic   North Culture  is  supposed  to  develop  in  the  area  of the
western  Baltic See.
 Three points are taken " true" for discussion

 1.) The area of  the  western  Baltic  Sea  was gentically isoslated
along  thousands of years .(The  fundamental  point  in  the  given
 working hypothesis)
In  historical  times  Tacitus (4)  described  the  GermansFor  my-
self,I concur in opinion with such as suppose the people of Germany
 never to have  mingled by inter- marriages with other nations, but to
have  remained  a  people  pure, and  independent, and resembling
 
none but themselves"

2.) The  people  were  blond, due  to a  lack of Vitamin D  (Rickets)
3.
)
The  base of  life was  dairy farming , not agriculture
 (Laktase)
                                   
Facit :If genetically isolated then an invasion of Kurgan peoples  or
even  of  Indoeuropean  is  difficult  to  explain  within  the  frame  of
Darwin´s Theory.

                              In general the ´at first´ problem
      How to relate linguistic Indogerman  with  archeolocal findings

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

       Isolation                                     

Nordic Bronze Age
At the End of  the last Glacial  Age along the Danube
and  Southern  France developed  first  clear  forests.
Birch, coniferous  trees  and  hazelbush  spread.The  gradually expanding forests in Central Europe forces
animal  and hunter to follow  the back-yielding tundra
on to the north. Arriving at the northwestern coasts of the Baltic Sea,
the migration of the hunters ended in a 
geographical  trap.  In  east
the Baltic Sea, in west the North Sea and to the south a virgin jungle
up  to the Alps, at least lifehostile for tundra- hunters

Thus the European North became isolated from the rest of the world.
along millennia up to historical times.
        May sound naive and there are  arguments against.

1.) "there  is some  ground  for assuming  that the earlier flint imple-
ments of Denmark were the product of an aboriginal race,gradually
ousted  and   driven north  by  Aryans  immigrating  with  a  superior

culture
link

2.)  " A new people moves from the south  into Jutland ----the single
grave  made  of  stone  or wood  covered  with a  mound  becomes
the dominating funeral  form  of  the  dominant  upperclass  (ending
the  Dolmen-Time).
Now in the bloom  time ( the older Bronze Age)
we  see the  break-through  and  the  first  high  point  of  the bronze
upper class culture
" (Broendsted my transl.)

Thus it  is  supposed - though  archeaology  can´t prove -  that  after Magdalénians  further people  immigrated  the area of  the western
Baltic Sea.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

   Linguistics                                                    This isolation-concept in mind back to the linguistics
                                            
       It is proven  that  European,  Near-East and  Ancient-Indian                                      languages  are related among  themselves 
                     Ari ( Indic, Iranian), Hellenic, Latin, Germanic, Slavic ,
                      Baltic, Armenian, Albanian, Celtic, Tokharic, Hittitie

                          All based on a so far supposed
                  Indogerman / 
Indoeuropean Parent-Language.
                                   

Thus  likely  to suppose that there must have been in ancient  times  somewhere  a  community   of  people speaking  a common  basic  language, a  Pre-Indogermanic / Indoeuropean.

Problem:  Where in Europe - Near   East  to look  for a  Basic Lan-
guage spoken by an Urvolk living in an Urheimat?
           Since generations up to day a nearly ´hopeless´ effort.

                  So far archeology as well as linguistics failed..

 
I got a friendly warnng This whole area is the preserve of the uber-crank. Leave
it to the specialists. Good source is "How to kill a dragon
" --
Thank you greymaus :-)

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

        Etymology                                        

                                       An attempt  to kill a dragon

Supposed  the  linguistic basis  of all European languages was the language of  the Magdalénian  reindeer hunters. (15000-9000 BC)

During  thousands  of  years   their  hunting
ground  was  the  open,  Central  European
tundra.    The  hunters   followed   seasonal
pasture areas, constantly on  the move and 
thereby    met  other  related   groups. Thus
these  early communities  had  widespread
internal contacts,  documented by  remains
that  include  adzes  made  of  exotic  stone,
and  external  contacts with  late  Mesolithic  communities in the North, especially along
the Meuse River
 

Thus  conceivable  that  all  * aborigenal  European * people  spoke
dialects  with a common grammatical
background.

At the end of the Glacial Age a Central Eurpean virgin forest began
to   cover  the  land  between  Baltic Sea  and 
the  Alps.  Forming a
green  barrier between  North and South. Thereby  along
  the  run of millennia the  Magdalénian  language  split from  dialects to  foreign languages´.

                      1.) In the isolated North the language of the
                           
Post- Magdalénian- Proto-Germans.
                     
                     2
.) In the Central European range
                         
proto   Celtic, Greek, Latin and  Balto-Slavic.

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

                                                   This in  mind  an " if - then" definition  of the ´term   I NDOGERMAN  

After KLUGE
*Etymologisches Wörterbuch der deutschen Sprache 1989 *

"   für  die  Bezeichnung  als  indogermqnisch  oder  grundsprachlich  verlangen  wir,  dass  ein  Wort  ausser  im  Germanischen  noch  im Arischen (Indisch,I ranisch) oder im  Hethtischen  oder Tocharischen auftritt"


"for  the  designation  as  indogermanic or basiclinguistic we require
that  a  word  except for the  Germanic  one still appears in Ari( Indic,  Iranian) or Hittitie or Tokharic
"


                                      Problem  with "except"
          
If all Indo-European  languages have  one  in  common,                            provable words which appear also in the Germanic one.
           then
                  
                   
German words must (?) be taken as a prerequisite                                                for the designation *Indogermanic*
                                 (admit: may sound a little bit strange :-)

                    -------------------------------------------------------------------------

         Indogerman
 
       a Bed Nobility                      


                    Could be that migration caused the spread of German words

                                   Encyclopaedia Britannica, Dolmen "

The  conception  underlying  the building of megalithic monuments is
the similarity .Still unknown, but  all  of  the monuments share  certain architectural and technical  features, demonstrating that the
dissemi- nators of the megalith idea came to dominate  the  local  populations  
of many areas. Magical  symbols carved on  many of
the monuments
also shows an underlying unity of beliefs
"

Probably  at  least  since  the  4th   millennium   Post-Magdalénian  in
the  North  left their country in small raiding  groups  primarily  by boat
along  the rivers, at least down the Danube.

By migration the language and religion   (Dolmen,  Mounds, ´Kurgan)
of   the   Northerners    were  carried  in  part  or  word  into  territories
occupied by  speakers of another language
.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

The raiders not being   accompained  by  own  wives  had  a  biolo-
gical problem:
The new upper class won, but had  no  own  children
                                   
                                             Problem

              How  to hand down  hierarchical structures and power
                                     without own children?

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

   Jus primae noctis 
  Right of the first night
                   
                       

Solving the problem: To enter into  marrige  with  aboriginal  women
           
                 thus  forming a  kind of bed-nobility

An ancient method: In the third millenium Gilgamesch in Sumer got in trouble with men in Uruk because claiming his " Right of the first night

Gilgamesh , as  the king, claims  the  right to  have sexual intercourse
first with every new bride on the day of her wedding; as Enkidu enters
the city, Gilgamesh is about to claim that right. Infuriated at this abuse,
Enkidu stands in front of the door of  the marital  chamber and  blocks
Gilgamesh's way. They  fight  furiously until  Gilgamesh wins the upper
hand; Enkidu concedes Gilgamesh's superiority and the two embrace
and become devoted friends.
http

                             
                          Thus the linguistic indogermanic problem in short :

An  offspring  learnes    basically  the  language of  its  mother,  thus  a
local blended language arose. Characterized by a bit proto- Gemanic; embedded along millennia in variations of an  original  post- Magdalé-
nian ´language'. (The supposed language of the reindeer hunters)

Thereby  Hittite, Greek,  Latin or Celtic, all  formerly more  or less  Old   European  Magdalénic  languages / dialects  became  blended   indo- german languages of to day.

Facit :  After  one  generation  a  ruling upper  class,  a  nobility   arose related  by  common  ancestors.  

               A new  class  distinguished from
others in ranking
                                                    by birth.

     Nice

A linguistic reference: If it is allowed  to  marry a  nice a  king  without
own children,  without  a heir to  the throne could  marry  a  doughter of
 his brother. Thus a  ruling  family  could  continue  to  justify  the  throne
 follow-claim.

                Noteworthy:  The  word  for NICE - in its origin-  is                                                     Indo-Germanic   (ig. *neptia-f) Kluge


With the  Egyptians  it was allowed that even Half Brother -Sisters could marry,
The blonde daughter (granddaughter?) of Cheops married her half-brother.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


So far the  proto-language. The etymology derives further support from
biology.   Arguments   primarily   based  on  genetic  isolation   lasting
along  millennia.
    Biology
     blond  

 Biology    supports   the  given  etymological     Migration-Hypothesis.
 Besides
Egypt´s fair haired Tamahu  (3th millennium )  the  haircolor delivered in Greek and  Roman  literature  points  to an  early Europe-
an  North  to  South 
migration.  (Sieglin)   and   thereby     forming  new >>Iindogerman languages<<.

                                                                              Blond                Dark

Hellenenes  (sum)                    350                   45 (bzw.74)
Divinities                                    60                   35
mythical persons                     140                  18
historical persons                    109                  13
lit.persons (hist.time)                   41                     8

Romans (sum.)                         111                   22 (bzw. 29)
Devinities                                   27                    2
mythical persons                      10                      0
historical persons                     63                   17
lit. persons (hist.time)                 11                     2

        btw. or rather. blond as well as dark
      Suetonius,  biographer  of Augustus:" his hair  was  slightly curly                and  inclining to golden". (Encyclopedia Britannica)
       ------------------------------------------------------------------------

     Whole milk drinkers,                               

                                                            After  weaning  time  no mammal  can  digest whole  milk  (lactose)

Problem
In the North there is a  tiny group  of abnormal 'mammals, that even
after weaning time continue to drink  whole milk  for life

                       Haak

The percentage distribution of the ability of human to drink fresh milk
(full cream milk) lifelong. Currently, a significant decline from North to South.
An inherited trait presumably with  far-reaching  cultural implications.

The milk sugar - hypothesis is supposed to be a basic mechanismn                             supporting the given  working hypothesis.   
 -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

  

                       So far arguments supposed  to  support the Working Hypothesis
                        ( Isolation, Etymology, Biology (blond, milk, Bed Nobility))

                                                    Two arguments against
                                                  1.)    The Kurgan people
                                                  2.)    The Battle axe people
                   --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

   Kurgan people
     (Gimbutas)                                      A wide spread argument in favor of  immigration  into  the  megalithic
                                                           North is the " sudden" change
in burial rites. (An agument against isolation)
                                                                                                 
" A new people moves  from  the  south   into Jutland ---
 The  single  grave   made of  stone  or  wood  covered
 with a mound  becomes  the  dominating  funeral  form
of  the  dominant   upperclass..( displaces  the  Dolmen). Now in the
bloom  time  ( the  older   Bronze  Age )  we  experience  the  break-
through and  the  first high point of  the  bronze upper  class  culture
"
(Broendsted my transl.)

                                    
                                                 ----------------- Deng Hoog, Isle Sylt 2600-2200 BC-------------------,         Isle  Amrum (near Sylt)
                                                                           
 Djoser Pyramid 2650 BC

The  time  of  building  Megalith  monuments  (Dolmen)  in this area
ends with the *funnel  cup  time*  around  2000 BC.( Trichterbecher)
Dead  ones  became buried  in single  graves, in a  box made from  sandstone or wood Often the grave was covered with earth  forming
a  >hilll, mound, Kurgan,<  like before as the DengHoog  

                     Why this ´sudden´change in burial rites ?             
      Really   necessary an arriving of new culture shaping  people ?
                                        May  be  more simple.

       To built  a  dolmen  large stones, Findlinge  were  needed.


These  rocks  had   been  transported
 by the scandinavian glaciers towards   the  south  and   thereby  were  limited   in  number . With  growing  population
the
burial rites had to adapt, I.e burial
in a box instead of a Dolmen




Likely   further  that  with  increasing  population  even the
yield weak sandy soils of
Jutland / Geest  had to  be culti-
vated by the new upperclass
Thus  increasing   population   pressure  may  forced 
an
inner migration. There were fights  and archeology  finds split heads.
Split by an >axe<.
 The speculative  birth  of the battle-axe people.

Jutland. Hachure area, the single graves
.
Line: Border of glacier of las
t ice age

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

      Battle Axe People                                    "  A new people moves  from  the  south   into Jutland --"
                                                                   
   A  prehistoric mainstream phantom ?
                                                                                
or a scary nice  story           

                                          
        Jutland Battleaxt  Typ B         Diameter of the shaft ca.2 cm
   
http://www.jungsteinsite.uni-kiel.de     the shaft of a powerfull culture                                                                               shaping weapon ?
 
Problem I:  Normal working  axe  of  the  people  next  door or of a
martial
  people  from  the  steppes of the  East,  Kurgan  peoples,
Proto-Skyt,  Celts
or  even  Indoeuropean  terminating   a Megalith Culture?

Problem II:  When  to  fight  with  the blunt " head-splitting cut",  and
                when to fight with the
more "friendly" rundness?

                Not split the head but  only a  bump on the head ?
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

                               A naive question of an technican
                               a life-threatening  technical nonsense

                             A battle axe with a 2cm shaft-hole
 

                     
Practical problems: Holland 3.th millennium.   Weehl d. 92 cm  made
 from a pkank of an oak. Needed diameter about one metre
Problem: How to cut such a tree with an battle axe with a 2-3 cm *thin* shaft
BTW: The Maoris (New Zealand) needed strong trees to  build its long war canoes.
Method: A beam was suspended with a  longer rope  at a branch of a  tree .In front
of the beam a stone wedge. The hanging beam was rammed exactly into the tree.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Problem with stony battle axes  
To fix a wooden shaft in an ax-hole. No problem in bronze or iron axes.
An iron
wedge is driven  by hammerblows  into  the  shaft.  The wedge presses the  halvs of  the shaft  with great  pressure against the wall of
the hole
. To day the method of choice, but dangerous to fasten a shaft
 
in a stony battle ax.

Problem: A  stone  resists  strong  compressive but only  small tensile   forces.. Thus  a  wedge  driven  into   the  wooden  shaft  pressing  the *splited*  shaft against the wall  wil  cause  * dangerous* tensil   forces   within the stone

As a case in point:. Two men in a  hand- to- hand fight with stony battle axes. If the  stones hit
then possible,  one  has only a 2 cm thin  shaft in  hand and then a hole in head.
Thoughts on cloud 7: " Next better to take a  big wooden  club"

May  be: the " battle-axe"  could have been a led chisel.
Two  men. One  keeps  t
he  hatchet  in position an other strikes  with  a *wooden hammer *  the  hatchet   on  the round neck.?  (rel. low tensile forces)
Notice: The cutting edge is rounded, not straight lined.

(picture: Georgien 2.Jt. BC .bronze)

                         All in all the  culture shaping battle axe people a
                     helpfull argument to keep alive a mainstream phantom

             
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------

                                               

P.S. blond
                        
Euripides  Electra (trans. E.P Coleridge)

OLD MAN

Ah yes! in vain; but  still I could not  bear to  leave  
him thus; and so
I
added this to my journey that I sought  his grave, and, falling there-
upon,  wept  o'er
its  desolation;   then  did  open the  wine-skin, my
gift to thy guests, and poured a libation,and set myrtle-sprigs round
the tomb. And lo! upon the grave  itself  I saw a black ram had been offered, and there  was blood, not  long  poured  forth, and  severed
 locks 
of auburn   hair.  Much I  wondered,  my  daughter,  who  had
dared approach
the tomb; certainly 'twas no Argive. Nay,thy brother
 may perchance
have come by stealth, and going  thither have done
 honour to his
father's wretche d grave. Look at  the hair, compare it
 with  thy  own, to 
see if  the  colour  of  these cut  locks is the same,
 for
children in  whose   veins runs  the  same  father's blood  have a
close resem
blance in many
features.

ELECTRA
Old sir, thy words are unworthy of  a wise  man, if  thou  thinkest  my
own  
brave brother would have come to this land  by stealth for fear
of
Aegishus. In the next place, how should our hair correspond? His
is 
the hair of a  gallant  youth  trained up  in  manly  sports,  mine  a
woman's
curled  and  combed; nay, that is a hopeless clue. Besides
thou  couldst
find  many whose hair is of the same colour, albeit not
sprung from the
same  blood. No, maybe it was  some stranger  cut
off  his  hair  in  pity  at 
his  tomb, or  one  that came to spy this land
privily.

 ---------------------------------------------------------------------------


P.S.
By  comparing  the   rec   British   Orientalist  and  jurist  Sir William
Jones,
who in 1786 said in his  presidential address  to the Bengal 
Asiatic Society
that Sanskrit bore to both Greek and Latin 
(Encyclopedia .Britannia)

"a stronger  affinity,  both  in  the  roots of verbs, and in the forms of
grammar, than could possibly have  been produced by accident; so
strong, indeed, that no philologer could examine them all three, with-
out  believing  them  to  have  sprung  from  some  common  source,
which, perhaps, no longer exists.There  is a  similar  reason, though
not quite so forcible, for supposing that both the Gothick [i.e.Germa-
nic] and the Celtick, though blended with a very different idiom, had
the  same  origin  with  the  Sanscrit; and  the  old  Persian might be
added to the same family
". . .

.(Encyclopedia. Britannica, 2000)
"Correlated with archaeological evidence, linguistic, historical, and geographic considerations suggest  that the speakers of proto-Indo- -European  were   a  relatively small  and  homogeneous   Eurasian population group that underwent significant expansion and fragmen-
tation  in the period around 4000 BC.

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

"Some scholars believe that  the  Indo-Europeans were the bearers
of the Kurgan  culture of the Black Sea and the Caucasus and west

of the Ura
l
."

                          

It appears that a geographic and biological isolation of  the Northerners                      allow an other description of  the supposed
                                        
small and  homogeneous
                                  Eurasian population group.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


Problem : DengHoog in its mythological origin  based in the* Kurgan Hearth*
?


Bröndsted, J.  Nordische Vorzeit, 1969
(lob 1944, Becker 1954. zit. Broendsted  
Gimbutas,M.  Bronce Age Cultures in central and eastern Europe, 1965
Hutterer,C.J. Die germanischen Sprachen 1999
Sieglin, W., Die blonden Haare der indogermanischen Voelker des Altertums.
Eine
Sammlung der antiken Zeugnisse als Beitrag zur Indogermanenfrage, 1935
 
1-indogermanen 20.03.04
,  07.08 update


index


next  Ancient shipbuilding  
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
 P.s                                   German - Basque
                                             no indogerman

Besides the isolated megalith - area of the Western Baltic Sea there
is  another area in Europe  geographically  isolated  along
  millennia.
The    Basque  of  unknown  origin  but  liguistically  like  the  German

being probably no INDO-German

         If in North and South no immigration of strange peoples then
             The Basque and the proto-German can´t have been INDO - German.
       
etr
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