The Holy Ring

                                                                 Normal  ´torques´´

a b c
                                             a) Neck ring. Bronze Age, Denmark 
                                             b) Neck, arm and foot rings. Bronze Age, northern Germany
                                             c) Bronze Age, at both legs double-spirals, northern Germany
                                             d) Detail of 0153. Link between ring and doublle spiral   
           a  b  c
a) Georgia. Woman statuette, 300 B.C. wearing  golden  neck- ear- and armrings
b) Georgia. The gold  decoration  was  made  of  thin  gold wire; on the head four
round disk from thin sheet of gold
c) Geneva lake  Villeneuve. A wooden figurine  with a  neckring which kept three
celtic coins in a fissure in the arm area . A  descriptive example of a cash donation
for the ferryman ? An ancient ferryman story of the Pyramidtext  still alive surviving
in Europa and Near East ? 
So far it is supposed that the ring / torques had been a more or less luxurious status
. So far no religious meaning, but a more amazing finding may be helpfull

Closed neck rings, too small in diameter to pull it over a head.

         .>>Iron-Age traditional costume of the central mountain zone
                 between Rhine and Thueringer basin<<  (Mainz 1992)
       Inside diameters of closed bronze neck rings, of 10.0 - 19.5 cm in diameter
Closed neck rings, bronze with casting taps left in situ
(Noteworthy that these amazing neck rings were otherwise ´
world wide ´ completedly unusal. Used within a sect ?)
Problem I:  A characteristic of these rings is the careless processing. The pieces  are manufactured by casting in lost form and remain  predominantly without considerable  subsequent treatment. Casting  remainders and burrs  complete  the impression of  a raw form. There  is no a technical reason to leave the rings semifinished.

Poblem II:
The rings were certainly worn around the neck, despite being too small in  diameter to be  pulled  over the head. At the first view, this could mean  that  the ring  was  put on within the first years of infancy.Thus with progressive growth of the head the ring
becomes ´fixed´ to the body, thereby remained around the neck of a grown up long live. Conceivable that this firm connection of a raw-formed ring to the body
               must have been intended to proceede in such a way

Though all this assigns an unknown special symbol character to  the rings, 
but it could be that in this special case the ring was casted around the neck
not of a living but on the neck of a dead adult.
Problem III: What expected  meaning in an Other World had the golden neck
ring and
the primitively  proceeded ring with casting taps left in situ ?
In generall: Only a reference to the rank of the deceased?  Bronze, for ´normal´
people but gold for aristocrats ?

A dying Gaul, nacked but with a ring around his neck. Conceivable that the ring proved the deceased to be a member of a certain religious comunity ?.
                       Dying Gaul                          Sumer               Gundestrup
Comparably Cheops, which shows with the name of his pyramid that he belongs to the horizon of the Gods. Or the Egyptian, who points out that he has a ring a  ´circlet ´in the hand.

Egyptean Coffin text. 586  *Hail to you, O Re, wearing your circlet! May you proceed to the councel chamber and reckon up your fathers who whatch for him who destroys doubles. O Blue-eyed one who freshens eyes, whose power is severe —Re in his circlet—Re will stand up, for I have my circlet which is in my hand
.(2100-1900 B.C.)
the *narrow*  ring was casted on the neck of a dead adult, then the ring could
not be lost on the long way onto the other world. Thus the dead one remained
recognizable as a member of a distinct religious  community. The ring a passport
to show  the neolithic *Petrus* at the door to the horizon " I belong to you?"
Like a tatooed cross on the arm of a drowned Christean sailor? (it is said)

1-ring-gusszapfen 01.12.03. 25.10.04 up.

next ancient sail-ship The problematic position of the mast food  in early
bow or later midship position