Rings around Neck, Arm and Feet  
                     what is the mythic meaning of ring / torque ?

In the given working hypothesis it is supposed that: “Who can reach the
horizon at  the banks of the primeval sea may attain  immortality”. So far
only an assumption. There are no archaeological references in the North,
but a written but predynastic Egypt may help.
           The name of the Cheopspyramide is >>Achti-Chufu´<<,                                      Cheops (chufu) belongs to the horizon ”. (Goyon 1987)
Obviously the connection of his name with the horizon was
important to the Pharao .The pyramid texts  explains why.
At the horizon the king meets the gods,and thereby attains
immortality. I.e. the king needs a boat.
Pyr.T.1705  The reed floats of the sky acres set down for RH, that he may
cross there on to the horizon, to the place where the gods were fount.


                 a   b   c    d   e    

a.) Queen Nefertari, one of the wifes of the Ramses II. (1292-1237 BC.)
The Usech collars around the neck, at the upper and lower arm and at the foot joints  wide-band rings. Around the forehead a bounded band.The forerunner of the later  Diadems?

The tomb of Queen Nefertari, one of the wives of Ramses II (1292-1237 The Usech-collar around her neck, the upper and lower arm and the foot joints broadband rings.
c.) Old Bronze-Age, a more womanlike ' decoration '. Central Germany
d.) Iron statue 25 cm, third century BC..Georgia.Gold. for bracelets,
earrings and a twisted neckring
as worn by ancient Teutons, Gauls and
Britons etc.
e.) Statue from gold and silver. Foot rings. Ankara around 2000 BC..
he ´Celtic Prince´ of Glauberg* 5.th centuy BC.(klick) A life-large
 sandstone statue
wears 1.) a forehead ring, ( supposed to be a miseleto  wreath / ring) 2.) a neckring with three pendants, 3.) a ring around the  right wrist, 4.) a finger ring and  5.) a partitioned ´band´ around the left  upper arm

                                                             a                                               b                                             c 
 a.) Bronze  sheet  head  ring. Siebenbürgen. The  engraved  decoration
shows  beneath the 12 circles  small human shapes., with a round body,
easily  spread legs.and stretched long arms. Could have been a diadem´.

 b.) Bronze ring ´decoration´  from woman grave 5.th century BC. A neck,
  two arm-and four leg rings .Central Germany

c )Barrow of Bernedorf.  Central  Germany. Older  and   recent  iron time.
 (750-450 / 450-50 BC )


                                                     Crete 1600 B.C. Arm- and feetrings. The loincloth with a swastika



Gods are probably born in a ´high- ranking´ environment. How should
this devine landscape look like ? Paradisiacal ? May  be, because there

is a  reference to a knotted  ´head band´  manufactured  from blooms.

The daughter of Djehuti-hotep wearing a

head ring/band with flowers.´.
12. Dynasty
(c 1900 BC..)

(The pale colors of the original intensified)

The  “Anch birds”  as  well  as  the  Payprus
dolden should  guarantee prospering and
freshness in the other world and luckyliving
on was awarded. 

 http://www.uni-leipzig.de/~egypt/Rundgang/Slideshow/Bild16.htm -

Remind the *Celtic  ´Prince´of Glauberg* 5.th centuy B.C click.
A life-large sandstone statue (1.86 cm) wears a forehead ring, supposed to be a miseleto wreath/ring (Glauberg, germ )

Conceivable that a ´floral´ head band in its origin symbolized vegetation. he Elysium of the Greek.* The islands at the west edge of earth* and later the paradise of Christians .

Athen, Olympic games 2004

Thus the so far  vague mytholocic meaning of the Olympic aurel wreath may
become more clarified.

The wreath/ring is a symbol of the devine horizon * where gods were borne* and the winner of Games was allowed to wear during one day the laural wreath. Thereby belonging for one day to the devine horizon. (?)
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------                                                  USECH - Egypt - 


                    Priest Rawer, early  4.Dyn. 2600 B.C.        Landlord Ti, 5.Dyn.

Problem: The early USECH was a broad neck-shoulder ring´
performed as a cutting
rin a relief as a simple , plain  ring  on
 an  otherwise nearly nude body (wearing in this
early times real
long hair and a real beard ? )

Lateron the the Usech - like the headband-  consisted of a wreath/ring
of multicolored blooms. This passing material became converted into
more durable faience and copies from precious metal or half  jewels.”

The Usech had been a dominant symbol along the  pharaoh-time.
A statussymbol of gods, pharaoh and of the  Egyptian upperclass

                  ,                                                          a                                   b                                              c                                  d

a ) Nofret, early 4.Dyn. 2600 BC. Usech with pendants
b)  Ramses II (! 292-1237 BC.), Usech with pendants,
c) Crete (1700-1300 BC:) steatites “Cup of the report”. Usech with
dants.and an arm ring. (Museum Herakleion)
d)´Celt  Prince´, Glauber g  (germ.),  5.th  century BC,  Central  Germany,
Wearing a neck  ring with three pendants, a ring at the right wrist, a
finger ring and a  three-way- partioned  band  at the  left  upper  arm.  
(Like his 
colleagues at the Nile or Crete


2200 BC


a) Sumer, admiration of the moon God Nana by the king Urnammu.
Relief fragment of the Urnammu Stele. 2200 BC. Ur. The god and the
king wearing a helmet with  four pairs of horns  The god with a ring in
his hand.
b) Besides: Gundestrupkessel, Denmark 100 BC. A celtic (?) god God wearing a neckring with three ´pendants` and in the right hand an open twisted´Torques´


Compareable rings in India and AnkorWat about1000 AD      .
                                  ( In Europe
the time of Gothic

                                                                                  a                              b                    c                  d

                                                                                                  e                                            f

a, b (klick!)  Indian. Chandushanugraha,  Bridhadisvara-Temple.  Broad
neckring with pendans.
c.) Bangalore
d.) Indra, the vedic  god of  storm  and prince if the  gods riding his white
elephant. Both .Indra and the elephant with legrings. 2th.century.
e.) Ankor Wat, Kambodscha, 1122-1182 AD
f.).One of the Bodhissattvas preceding the  historical  Buddha
AD  800 Wearing  arrm-,  legrings  and  a  neckring  with  pendants
Museum Nalanda

Related in South India the Megalith monuments (1000 BC.-AD1000)
 In Korea about 20000 Dolmen are recognized as * world cultural heritage *
in Japan the oldest graves  of  the  emperors are  Megalith-monuments.

Problem: So far  in  the North  no  written  references  are  available but
clearly recognizable  a  mythic  significance of the  ring used  by Roman
and Greek..
With the Roman and Greek all sacrificing persons had to wore a 'corona '
Crowned were all persons and  articles being in  relationship  with  gods.
victims, boundary  stones, graves, participants in  celebrations-
 Later the use
 of a wreath of oak leaves was limited to the emperor.

The crown used in form of a wreath / ring becomes directly recognizable
in  the year  360 AD. Julian  had been  crowned in  Paris  to be   Roman
.In  the coronation procedure  Roman and  Germanic traditions
met one another
The Germanic  fighters chose J ulian as  leader by lifting him on a skield
and  on coronation they placed a ring on his head.
 (The´skield lifting procedure  is of proven Germanic origin .(Hauck))

This ' coronation / culmination ´of a Roman emperor with a simple ring is
  purely  accidental.  It  is  an  expression of  a  struggle  between  the
paganism of
 the Romans, the ´related´ German and the growing Christi-
 anity. Julian was
an avowed opponent of Christianity. He tried to streng-
then shrinking old
 traditions. He was an advocate of the Mithras cult.
( Zeus in Athen wore a plain ring on his head.)

Later in the North, the ring had a character of highest holyness  Made in
 Iceland a
holy oath ring is delivered. Around  925  the
 Icelandic certifica-
 tions from the Ulfjot laws begin with

:"--  A  ring  of  two  or more ounces  was to  lie  in  each  main
temple  on  the  altar.In  the  meeting, the  Gode (judge) himself 
has called for, he has to keep this ring in his hand after he had
turned it red in the blood of the victim (animal), which he sacrificed

Each man, who had to settle a legal act before the court, should
swear an oath before on this ring. (The king of the Danes,
Alfred the Great on 876 swore on such a ring a particularly holy oath

Facit So far the given WORKING-HYPOTHESIS allows  the speculatio
that who wore the ring  symbolized  its  faith  to god and  his  belief
to the
holy horizon (?) Thereby after dying a boat was needed to depart
the primeval deadly ozean in order to meet the gods at the ocean´s
western horizon.

Beside theSun-Spiral the Horizon-Ring may be the other central symbol 
of an  neolithic nature  religion  off North-West  Europe. A religion of
megalithic seafarer.

Seyfried.F.   http://www.uni-leipzig.de/    (Rundgang)

NEXT The diameter of the neck-ring is too small to pull the
 ring over the head