Dieter Braasch
Die wesentlichen schriftlichen Hinweise auf die Anfaenge der aegyptischen Religionen
 stammen aus der 5. und 6. Dynastie (2500-2200 v.Chr.). Es sind die Texte in Pyramiden
 und Grabanlagen. Diese, für die ägyptische Religionsforschung grundlegenden Texte
sind demnach etwa tausend Jahre juenger als die mit Spiralen dekorierten Grabbeigaben
 in Negade II.

Diese Zeitspanne von 1000 Jahren muss beruecksichtigt werden, wenn man versucht,
in den Pyramidenrexten der bereits voll entwickelten aegyptischen Hochkultur, die
Anfänge einer praedynastischen Naturreligion aufzuspueren. Die Pyramidentexte koennen
nur ein mehr oder weniger verschwaschenes Bild der religioesen Vorstellungen aus der
Zeit des Narmers um 3000 v.Chr. widerspiegeln.

Ein Teil dieser Texten sind vermutlich schon in vor- oder fruehdynastischer Zeit entstanden.
Einige von ihnen haben, noch deutlich erkennbar, Aenderungen erfahren, durch die s
ie dem spaeteren Osirisglauben, mit dem sie urspruenglich keine Verbindung hatten (!),
angepasst wurden. Ein Prozess, der zu einer unloesbaren Verwirrungen von urspruenglich
verschiedenen Anschauungen ueber das Leben der Toten im Jenseits fuehrte. (Breasted)

                                        The Pyramid Texts have aroused much speculation
                                        regarding their origin because they emerge, as a
                                        fully-fledged collection of mortuary texts, without
                                        any precedent in the archaeological record.
Pyramid Text:collection of Egyptian mortuary prayers, hymns, and spells intended to
 protect a dead king or queen and ensure life and sustenance in the hereafter. The texts,
 inscribed on the walls of the inner chambers of the pyramids, are found at Saqqarah in
several 5th- and 6th-dynasty pyramids, of which that of Unas, last king of the 5th dynasty,
 is the earliest known. The texts constitute the oldest surviving body of Egyptian religious
 and funerary writings available to modern scholars.

The Pyramid Texts are considered the oldest body of religious writings in the world.

Coffin Text: collection of ancient Egyptian funerary texts consisting of spells or magic
formulas, painted on the burial coffins of the First Intermediate period (c. 2130-1939 BC)
and the Middle Kingdom (1938-c.1600? BC). The Coffin Texts, combined with the Pyramid
Texts from which they were derived, were the primary sources of the Book of the Dead,
which was in prominent use during the New Kingdom and Late period. These three
collections represent the most extensive body of Egyptian religious literature available
to modern scholars.



                              Faulkner, R.O.The Ancient Egyptian Pyramid Texts , 1969

139      The sun-folk shall call out to you, for the Imperishable Stars have raised you aloft
336      The sun-folk have testified concerning me
559      Hail to you, Great Flood, buller of the gods, leader of the sun-folk. (dit.565)
876      The sun-folk calls to you, the Imperishable Stars wait on you
1126    I will lift up my hand to the sun-folk

1168    My father ascends the sky among the gods who are in the sky; he stands at
            Great Polar Region and learns the speech of the sun folk (1174 he who is north
             of the waterway, the end of the sky)

1288    The dead fall on their faces before you, you have seized hold of the sun-folk

1587    I (am saved?) by my father Osiris, the sun-folk have guardet me

O my father Osiris the king, upon the thron of Re-Atum, that you may lead the

1766    the sun-folk in his two boats. My name is there in the horizont

1993    you give orders to the sun-folk

Those who are in the Abyss come to you, the sun-folk go to and for you, that you
           may be Horus (Abyss Abgrund)

2187    the sun-folk shall come to you

2235    the sun-folk give you and Seth ferries you over the Winding Waterway

543      Hail to you Re, you who traverse the sky and cross Nut, having traversed the
            Winding Waterway

599      O Re, commend to me-xyz—the ferryman of the Winding Waterway, so that he
            may bring me his ferry-boat which belongs to the Winding Waterway, to the
            eastern side of the sky, so that he may ferry me over to yonder side of the Winding
            Waterway, to the eastern side of the sky

802      for you have traversed the Winding Waterway in the north of the sky as a star
            crossing the sea which is beneath the sky

1223   If you delay to ferry me over in this ferry boat, I will tell your names to men whom I

            know, to everyone.

1345   He goes abord the bark like Re at the banks of the Winding Waterway
1347   the end of his bow-warp is taken by Isis, his stern-warp is coiled by Nephthys

1376   My ropes are knotted, my ferry-boats are made ready for the son of Atum, who is
            hungry and thirsty—on this southern side of the Winding Waterway. O Thot, you
            who are in the region of the shade of your bush, put me on the tip of your wing on
           yonder nothern side of the Winding Waterway

The reed-floats of the sky are set down for Re, that he may cross theron to the
           horizon, to the place where the gods were born.

The king shall go aboard the bark like Re on the banks of the Winding Waterway,
           the king shall be rowed by the Unwearing Stars and shall give orders to the

           Imperishable Stars

802     for you have traversed the Winding Waterway in the North of the sky as a star
          crossing the sea which is beneath the sky

1022   I am the primeval hill of the land in the midst of the sea whose hand no earthling
           have grapsed

1213   I have gone down upon the sea; bow your head and bend down your arm, O sea
1505   O Osiris, you being potent in your name Horus who is in the sea

1508   O Re you being potent in your name of ´Horus at the head of the spirits, Star which
           crosses the sea´

1720  The door of the sky at the horizon opens to you, gods are glad at meeting you as
           the star which crosses the sea below the under-part of the sky

1752   take your two oars—so that you may cross the waterway to your house the sea
           and protect yourself from him who would harm you. Oho! Beware of the Great

1907   and you live on their hearts, standing on (your) feet (by) the sea

1925   because they are drowned, because they destroyed when you smite them, when
           you drown them, when you destroy them on land and sea

2186   your foes perish, and they will perish; drown them, put them in the lake, put them in
           the sea. The sun-folk shall come to you

339    They bring me to the four spirits, The Elders who are at the head of the wearers of
           the side-lock,
who stand in the eastern side of the sky and lean on on their staffs 

1221  O you four who are at the head of the lock-wearers, as your locks are on your
          foreheads, as your locks are on your temples, as your locks are on the backs of
          your heads, on the top ( in the middle) of your heads being dancing tresses, bring
          me the ferry boat, bring me the carrying-boat (s.a.520)


                        Faulkner, R.O. The Ancient Egyptian Coffin Texts, 1978

316     She who closed the house because of the Coiled One, and me is the coil of my eye
493     for I am the guard of the prisoners after the secret matters of the Coiled One.

I am the ordered ferry boat which the Coiled One encircles ervery day. I come to
land  because of the celestical kine; The lords of the Coiled One are within of the
           abode of the flood.

 As for the Coiled One whom Isis brought to her son Horus, who is in the bow of the
           bark which her word brought into being on his account in the presence of the Sole
           Lord, because of her bringing him to Horus, she spoke of the Coiled One to Re, and

           it goes well with Horus son of Isis

939     Oh Ptah the Coiled One.

1098   As for the Coiled One which is on his head, it was Isis who brought it to him

1103   Who is he who goes around the Coiled One?

I am in the midst of his firmament, and he is my brother, (namly) the Coiled One,
           when sailing, and I am in his suite

1124  These belong to my father Osiris, who is on the high ground ( and to) the Coiled One.

I will relate you the two good deeds which my own heart did for me within the
           Coiled One in order that falsehood might be silenced.

467    heads are given to me, and I knit on the head of the Blue-eyed Horus, one who acts
          according to his desire.

586    Hail to you, O Re, wearing your circlet! May you proceed to the councel chamber
          and reckon up your fathers who whatch for him who destroys doubles. O Blue-eyed
          one who freshens eyes, whose power is severe.—Re in his circlet—Re will stand
          up, for I have my circlet which is in my hand
. (Faulkner. "determined with a crown
          appears in fact to have been a head-band or circlet


7         Nut—She, with braided hair, who bore the gods.
154     I know why a braided lock is made for a man.—It so happened that RE met HIM
           who wears bright-red cloth before he could direct his hand against him, and he set
          up a trap for him, namely a woman with braided hair, and that is how a man with
          braided hair in On (Heliopolis) came into being.

181     for I am the Bull with curly hair.
1007   I will fill my mouth with the braided lock of the god.
1011   come and go between the two pillars of Re and the two djed-pillars of Geb; my hair
          stand up and my braided tress is disordered  (tress: 1) originally a braid or plait of
          hair 2) a lock or curl of human hair 3) a woman´s or girls hair, especially when
          long and hanging loosely)

66      The Two Ladies of Dep shall let down their hair for you
344     ---he grayhaired fears me. (368)
468     I take the gray haired on the roof
766     N has turned aside to day in order to protect the grayhaired ones. (397)
846     the Grayhaired One have taken away (---) in the early morning.
1131   a lock of hair is cut off.
1113   and Re stands up in the midst of the sky in oder to give guidance to his attendants,
            His back, (even) Re-Atums, is turned to the smells; a lock of hair is cut off, and the
            eye is closed because(?)

DRESS (wig:Perücke)
61       a six-weave cloth (264)
67       Offerings: thousend of linen.
484     The dress of Hathor is woven, --(62) that he may celebrate the monthly festival in
           his hour in company with those who are in linen.

486      WEAVING THE DRESS FOR HATHOR she ascends in turquoise and is covered
           with her royal wig-cover.(Faulkner: The reference to turquoise could apply to a
           blue garmen. Türkis: sky-blue semiprecious stone)

890     the day of the festival of red linen in the early morning.
971     the keeper of the linnen for the uraei.

75      Shu---I am he who is in the midst of his circle. (Fußnote: ´his coil´)
75      self created god who came into being alone, being older than the gods, he who
          pierced the height of heaven.

76       I am Shu, father of the gods.(Ladder 78, 79)
80       It is I who makes the sky light after darkness—the storm-cloud of the sky is my
           efflux; hail-stormes and half-dakrness are my sweat.—I am bound for my place of

101     which the Lord of All made, his sun-folk with him
255     Praise is given by the Lords of the East, acclamation is made for me by the Lords
           of the West, homage is done before me by the sun-folk. I go aboard the ship,
           cross the yonder side, I enter the Great Mansion (of Osiris)
305     I have assembled the sun-folk and all great Gods come to me bowed down

317     BECOMING the NILE. I am a young God, it was Re who created me as his son,
            he modelled me in stonework (?) (122)  The Gods of the horizon concerning me
           They see me when I have appeared as the Nile, with sun-folk about me, like Re
           when he was born.(288) I am Tosser (?) son of the fiercy one of Shu, long
           extended of brilliance, when Shu is at the head of the sun folk

Praise is given to me, by those who are in the West, and the earth is kissed
           before me by the sun-folk.

Hail to you for times, N´ says Re. ´The gods will love you, the tatricians will adore
           you, the plebs will serve you, the sun-folk will extol you daily

817     and the sun-folk become bowing to me

960     Re who excludes the sun-folk, (who) all belong to me

967     my seed is that of the Bull of the sun-folk

and not let cloudiness come into being among the sun-folk on the day of clearing
           the god

1126   The sun folk.The crew of Re, whose number is unknown

1099    (239) I have subdued the sun-folk

1099    Hail to you to whom the sun-folk are pure

182     Bring me the ( bark) that you may go up; if this is what you have brought to me to
           day, the steering-oar of the god´s bark will not be broken—the sternpost will not be

195     cut the papyrus-stems, twist the lacings and frap the hull



29     Horus the Lord of the Patricians
36     He has brought to you (Osiris) your wig of your dignity of Bull of west
         ( Faulkner: In any case, we appear to have here a mark of rank)

42     O Osiris. The patricians and the plebs come to you prostrate and the sunfolk crawling
62     (267) I have cause you to cross the Waterwy of the Sky-Windows, to cross the lake
         and travers the sea (with) the sole of the foot as if you were performe on the land

332    I am Hathor, mistress of the northern sky

1011  I come and go between the two pillars of Re and the two djed-pillars of Geb.

                                                                   Sonnenvolk  / Sun folk

Pyramiden Text § 1168
Sethe:  "Mein Vater steigt auf zum Himmel unter die Goetter, die am Himmel sind
und steht  da an dem grossen  (Pol.)-Viertel damit er die Worte der -hnmmt- Menschen
 hoert." (1908-1910)

(Sethe hat die Deutung des Wortes -hnmmt- offengelassen)

Faulkner: § 1168  "My father ascends the sky amongst the gods who are in the sky,
he stands at the Great Polar Region and learns the speech of the sun folk"(1969)

Hanning: -hnmmt- bedeutet: Sonnenvolk, Gläubige oder Anhänger des Sonnen-


Sun ffolk Pyr.T.     139, 336, 559, 876, 1126, 1288, 1766, 1993, 2147, 2187, 2235
Sun folk Coffin T.  101. 255, 288, 305,  317, 362, 693, 817, 960, 967, 1012, 1099,  1100,

Faulkner, R.O., The Ancient Egyptian Pyramid Texts, 1969
Hanning, R.P.,  Die Sprache der Pharaonen. Grosses Handwoerterbuch Ägyptisch
Deutsch 2800-950 v.Chr.

Sethe,K.,  Die altaegyptischen Pyramidentexte (nach den Papierdrucken des Berliner
Museums (1908-1910)

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